View on GitHub


1 day
Test Coverage
import inspect
import os
import warnings
from importlib import import_module

from django.core.exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured
from django.utils.deprecation import RemovedInDjango41Warning
from django.utils.module_loading import import_string, module_has_submodule


class AppConfig:
    """Class representing a Django application and its configuration."""

    def __init__(self, app_name, app_module):
        # Full Python path to the application e.g. 'django.contrib.admin'. = app_name

        # Root module for the application e.g. <module 'django.contrib.admin'
        # from 'django/contrib/admin/'>.
        self.module = app_module

        # Reference to the Apps registry that holds this AppConfig. Set by the
        # registry when it registers the AppConfig instance.
        self.apps = None

        # The following attributes could be defined at the class level in a
        # subclass, hence the test-and-set pattern.

        # Last component of the Python path to the application e.g. 'admin'.
        # This value must be unique across a Django project.
        if not hasattr(self, 'label'):
            self.label = app_name.rpartition(".")[2]

        # Human-readable name for the application e.g. "Admin".
        if not hasattr(self, 'verbose_name'):
            self.verbose_name = self.label.title()

        # Filesystem path to the application directory e.g.
        # '/path/to/django/contrib/admin'.
        if not hasattr(self, 'path'):
            self.path = self._path_from_module(app_module)

        # Module containing models e.g. <module 'django.contrib.admin.models'
        # from 'django/contrib/admin/'>. Set by import_models().
        # None if the application doesn't have a models module.
        self.models_module = None

        # Mapping of lowercase model names to model classes. Initially set to
        # None to prevent accidental access before import_models() runs.
        self.models = None

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<%s: %s>' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.label)

    def _path_from_module(self, module):
        """Attempt to determine app's filesystem path from its module."""
        # See #21874 for extended discussion of the behavior of this method in
        # various cases.
        # Convert paths to list because Python's _NamespacePath doesn't support
        # indexing.
        paths = list(getattr(module, '__path__', []))
        if len(paths) != 1:
            filename = getattr(module, '__file__', None)
            if filename is not None:
                paths = [os.path.dirname(filename)]
                # For unknown reasons, sometimes the list returned by __path__
                # contains duplicates that must be removed (#25246).
                paths = list(set(paths))
        if len(paths) > 1:
            raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                "The app module %r has multiple filesystem locations (%r); "
                "you must configure this app with an AppConfig subclass "
                "with a 'path' class attribute." % (module, paths))
        elif not paths:
            raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                "The app module %r has no filesystem location, "
                "you must configure this app with an AppConfig subclass "
                "with a 'path' class attribute." % module)
        return paths[0]

    def create(cls, entry):
        Factory that creates an app config from an entry in INSTALLED_APPS.
        # create() eventually returns app_config_class(app_name, app_module).
        app_config_class = None
        app_config_name = None
        app_name = None
        app_module = None

        # If import_module succeeds, entry points to the app module.
            app_module = import_module(entry)
        except Exception:
            # If app_module has an apps submodule that defines a single
            # AppConfig subclass, use it automatically.
            # To prevent this, an AppConfig subclass can declare a class
            # variable default = False.
            # If the apps module defines more than one AppConfig subclass,
            # the default one can declare default = True.
            if module_has_submodule(app_module, APPS_MODULE_NAME):
                mod_path = '%s.%s' % (entry, APPS_MODULE_NAME)
                mod = import_module(mod_path)
                # Check if there's exactly one AppConfig candidate,
                # excluding those that explicitly define default = False.
                app_configs = [
                    (name, candidate)
                    for name, candidate in inspect.getmembers(mod, inspect.isclass)
                    if (
                        issubclass(candidate, cls) and
                        candidate is not cls and
                        getattr(candidate, 'default', True)
                if len(app_configs) == 1:
                    app_config_class = app_configs[0][1]
                    app_config_name = '%s.%s' % (mod_path, app_configs[0][0])
                    # Check if there's exactly one AppConfig subclass,
                    # among those that explicitly define default = True.
                    app_configs = [
                        (name, candidate)
                        for name, candidate in app_configs
                        if getattr(candidate, 'default', False)
                    if len(app_configs) > 1:
                        candidates = [repr(name) for name, _ in app_configs]
                        raise RuntimeError(
                            '%r declares more than one default AppConfig: '
                            '%s.' % (mod_path, ', '.join(candidates))
                    elif len(app_configs) == 1:
                        app_config_class = app_configs[0][1]
                        app_config_name = '%s.%s' % (mod_path, app_configs[0][0])

            # If app_module specifies a default_app_config, follow the link.
            # default_app_config is deprecated, but still takes over the
            # automatic detection for backwards compatibility during the
            # deprecation period.
                new_entry = app_module.default_app_config
            except AttributeError:
                # Use the default app config class if we didn't find anything.
                if app_config_class is None:
                    app_config_class = cls
                    app_name = entry
                message = (
                    '%r defines default_app_config = %r. ' % (entry, new_entry)
                if new_entry == app_config_name:
                    message += (
                        'Django now detects this configuration automatically. '
                        'You can remove default_app_config.'
                    message += (
                        "However, Django's automatic detection %s. You should "
                        "move the default config class to the apps submodule "
                        "of your application and, if this module defines "
                        "several config classes, mark the default one with "
                        "default = True." % (
                            "picked another configuration, %r" % app_config_name
                            if app_config_name
                            else "did not find this configuration"
                warnings.warn(message, RemovedInDjango41Warning, stacklevel=2)
                entry = new_entry
                app_config_class = None

        # If import_string succeeds, entry is an app config class.
        if app_config_class is None:
                app_config_class = import_string(entry)
            except Exception:
        # If both import_module and import_string failed, it means that entry
        # doesn't have a valid value.
        if app_module is None and app_config_class is None:
            # If the last component of entry starts with an uppercase letter,
            # then it was likely intended to be an app config class; if not,
            # an app module. Provide a nice error message in both cases.
            mod_path, _, cls_name = entry.rpartition('.')
            if mod_path and cls_name[0].isupper():
                # We could simply re-trigger the string import exception, but
                # we're going the extra mile and providing a better error
                # message for typos in INSTALLED_APPS.
                # This may raise ImportError, which is the best exception
                # possible if the module at mod_path cannot be imported.
                mod = import_module(mod_path)
                candidates = [
                    for name, candidate in inspect.getmembers(mod, inspect.isclass)
                    if issubclass(candidate, cls) and candidate is not cls
                msg = "Module '%s' does not contain a '%s' class." % (mod_path, cls_name)
                if candidates:
                    msg += ' Choices are: %s.' % ', '.join(candidates)
                raise ImportError(msg)
                # Re-trigger the module import exception.

        # Check for obvious errors. (This check prevents duck typing, but
        # it could be removed if it became a problem in practice.)
        if not issubclass(app_config_class, AppConfig):
            raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                "'%s' isn't a subclass of AppConfig." % entry)

        # Obtain app name here rather than in AppClass.__init__ to keep
        # all error checking for entries in INSTALLED_APPS in one place.
        if app_name is None:
                app_name =
            except AttributeError:
                raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                    "'%s' must supply a name attribute." % entry

        # Ensure app_name points to a valid module.
            app_module = import_module(app_name)
        except ImportError:
            raise ImproperlyConfigured(
                "Cannot import '%s'. Check that '' is correct." % (

        # Entry is a path to an app config class.
        return app_config_class(app_name, app_module)

    def get_model(self, model_name, require_ready=True):
        Return the model with the given case-insensitive model_name.

        Raise LookupError if no model exists with this name.
        if require_ready:
            return self.models[model_name.lower()]
        except KeyError:
            raise LookupError(
                "App '%s' doesn't have a '%s' model." % (self.label, model_name))

    def get_models(self, include_auto_created=False, include_swapped=False):
        Return an iterable of models.

        By default, the following models aren't included:

        - auto-created models for many-to-many relations without
          an explicit intermediate table,
        - models that have been swapped out.

        Set the corresponding keyword argument to True to include such models.
        Keyword arguments aren't documented; they're a private API.
        for model in self.models.values():
            if model._meta.auto_created and not include_auto_created:
            if model._meta.swapped and not include_swapped:
            yield model

    def import_models(self):
        # Dictionary of models for this app, primarily maintained in the
        # 'all_models' attribute of the Apps this AppConfig is attached to.
        self.models = self.apps.all_models[self.label]

        if module_has_submodule(self.module, MODELS_MODULE_NAME):
            models_module_name = '%s.%s' % (, MODELS_MODULE_NAME)
            self.models_module = import_module(models_module_name)

    def ready(self):
        Override this method in subclasses to run code when Django starts.