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from psycopg2.extras import Inet

from django.conf import settings
from django.db.backends.base.operations import BaseDatabaseOperations

class DatabaseOperations(BaseDatabaseOperations):
    cast_char_field_without_max_length = 'varchar'
    explain_prefix = 'EXPLAIN'
    cast_data_types = {
        'AutoField': 'integer',
        'BigAutoField': 'bigint',
        'SmallAutoField': 'smallint',

    def unification_cast_sql(self, output_field):
        internal_type = output_field.get_internal_type()
        if internal_type in ("GenericIPAddressField", "IPAddressField", "TimeField", "UUIDField"):
            # PostgreSQL will resolve a union as type 'text' if input types are
            # 'unknown'.
            # These fields cannot be implicitly cast back in the default
            # PostgreSQL configuration so we need to explicitly cast them.
            # We must also remove components of the type within brackets:
            # varchar(255) -> varchar.
            return 'CAST(%%s AS %s)' % output_field.db_type(self.connection).split('(')[0]
        return '%s'

    def date_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        if lookup_type == 'week_day':
            # For consistency across backends, we return Sunday=1, Saturday=7.
            return "EXTRACT('dow' FROM %s) + 1" % field_name
        elif lookup_type == 'iso_week_day':
            return "EXTRACT('isodow' FROM %s)" % field_name
        elif lookup_type == 'iso_year':
            return "EXTRACT('isoyear' FROM %s)" % field_name
            return "EXTRACT('%s' FROM %s)" % (lookup_type, field_name)

    def date_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        return "DATE_TRUNC('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type, field_name)

    def _prepare_tzname_delta(self, tzname):
        if '+' in tzname:
            return tzname.replace('+', '-')
        elif '-' in tzname:
            return tzname.replace('-', '+')
        return tzname

    def _convert_field_to_tz(self, field_name, tzname):
        if settings.USE_TZ:
            field_name = "%s AT TIME ZONE '%s'" % (field_name, self._prepare_tzname_delta(tzname))
        return field_name

    def datetime_cast_date_sql(self, field_name, tzname):
        field_name = self._convert_field_to_tz(field_name, tzname)
        return '(%s)::date' % field_name

    def datetime_cast_time_sql(self, field_name, tzname):
        field_name = self._convert_field_to_tz(field_name, tzname)
        return '(%s)::time' % field_name

    def datetime_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name, tzname):
        field_name = self._convert_field_to_tz(field_name, tzname)
        return self.date_extract_sql(lookup_type, field_name)

    def datetime_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name, tzname):
        field_name = self._convert_field_to_tz(field_name, tzname)
        return "DATE_TRUNC('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type, field_name)

    def time_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        return "DATE_TRUNC('%s', %s)::time" % (lookup_type, field_name)

    def json_cast_text_sql(self, field_name):
        return '(%s)::text' % field_name

    def deferrable_sql(self):

    def fetch_returned_insert_rows(self, cursor):
        Given a cursor object that has just performed an INSERT...RETURNING
        statement into a table, return the tuple of returned data.
        return cursor.fetchall()

    def lookup_cast(self, lookup_type, internal_type=None):
        lookup = '%s'

        # Cast text lookups to text to allow things like filter(x__contains=4)
        if lookup_type in ('iexact', 'contains', 'icontains', 'startswith',
                           'istartswith', 'endswith', 'iendswith', 'regex', 'iregex'):
            if internal_type in ('IPAddressField', 'GenericIPAddressField'):
                lookup = "HOST(%s)"
            elif internal_type in ('CICharField', 'CIEmailField', 'CITextField'):
                lookup = '%s::citext'
                lookup = "%s::text"

        # Use UPPER(x) for case-insensitive lookups; it's faster.
        if lookup_type in ('iexact', 'icontains', 'istartswith', 'iendswith'):
            lookup = 'UPPER(%s)' % lookup

        return lookup

    def no_limit_value(self):
        return None

    def prepare_sql_script(self, sql):
        return [sql]

    def quote_name(self, name):
        if name.startswith('"') and name.endswith('"'):
            return name  # Quoting once is enough.
        return '"%s"' % name

    def set_time_zone_sql(self):
        return "SET TIME ZONE %s"

    def sql_flush(self, style, tables, *, reset_sequences=False, allow_cascade=False):
        if not tables:
            return []

        # Perform a single SQL 'TRUNCATE x, y, z...;' statement. It allows us
        # to truncate tables referenced by a foreign key in any other table.
        sql_parts = [
            ', '.join(style.SQL_FIELD(self.quote_name(table)) for table in tables),
        if reset_sequences:
            sql_parts.append(style.SQL_KEYWORD('RESTART IDENTITY'))
        if allow_cascade:
        return ['%s;' % ' '.join(sql_parts)]

    def sequence_reset_by_name_sql(self, style, sequences):
        # 'ALTER SEQUENCE sequence_name RESTART WITH 1;'... style SQL statements
        # to reset sequence indices
        sql = []
        for sequence_info in sequences:
            table_name = sequence_info['table']
            # 'id' will be the case if it's an m2m using an autogenerated
            # intermediate table (see BaseDatabaseIntrospection.sequence_list).
            column_name = sequence_info['column'] or 'id'
            sql.append("%s setval(pg_get_serial_sequence('%s','%s'), 1, false);" % (
        return sql

    def tablespace_sql(self, tablespace, inline=False):
        if inline:
            return "USING INDEX TABLESPACE %s" % self.quote_name(tablespace)
            return "TABLESPACE %s" % self.quote_name(tablespace)

    def sequence_reset_sql(self, style, model_list):
        from django.db import models
        output = []
        qn = self.quote_name
        for model in model_list:
            # Use `coalesce` to set the sequence for each model to the max pk value if there are records,
            # or 1 if there are none. Set the `is_called` property (the third argument to `setval`) to true
            # if there are records (as the max pk value is already in use), otherwise set it to false.
            # Use pg_get_serial_sequence to get the underlying sequence name from the table name
            # and column name (available since PostgreSQL 8)

            for f in model._meta.local_fields:
                if isinstance(f, models.AutoField):
                        "%s setval(pg_get_serial_sequence('%s','%s'), "
                        "coalesce(max(%s), 1), max(%s) %s null) %s %s;" % (
                            style.SQL_KEYWORD('IS NOT'),
                    break  # Only one AutoField is allowed per model, so don't bother continuing.
        return output

    def prep_for_iexact_query(self, x):
        return x

    def max_name_length(self):
        Return the maximum length of an identifier.

        The maximum length of an identifier is 63 by default, but can be
        changed by recompiling PostgreSQL after editing the NAMEDATALEN
        macro in src/include/pg_config_manual.h.

        This implementation returns 63, but can be overridden by a custom
        database backend that inherits most of its behavior from this one.
        return 63

    def distinct_sql(self, fields, params):
        if fields:
            params = [param for param_list in params for param in param_list]
            return (['DISTINCT ON (%s)' % ', '.join(fields)], params)
            return ['DISTINCT'], []

    def last_executed_query(self, cursor, sql, params):
        # The query attribute is a Psycopg extension to the DB API 2.0.
        if cursor.query is not None:
            return cursor.query.decode()
        return None

    def return_insert_columns(self, fields):
        if not fields:
            return '', ()
        columns = [
            '%s.%s' % (
            ) for field in fields
        return 'RETURNING %s' % ', '.join(columns), ()

    def bulk_insert_sql(self, fields, placeholder_rows):
        placeholder_rows_sql = (", ".join(row) for row in placeholder_rows)
        values_sql = ", ".join("(%s)" % sql for sql in placeholder_rows_sql)
        return "VALUES " + values_sql

    def adapt_datefield_value(self, value):
        return value

    def adapt_datetimefield_value(self, value):
        return value

    def adapt_timefield_value(self, value):
        return value

    def adapt_decimalfield_value(self, value, max_digits=None, decimal_places=None):
        return value

    def adapt_ipaddressfield_value(self, value):
        if value:
            return Inet(value)
        return None

    def subtract_temporals(self, internal_type, lhs, rhs):
        if internal_type == 'DateField':
            lhs_sql, lhs_params = lhs
            rhs_sql, rhs_params = rhs
            params = (*lhs_params, *rhs_params)
            return "(interval '1 day' * (%s - %s))" % (lhs_sql, rhs_sql), params
        return super().subtract_temporals(internal_type, lhs, rhs)

    def explain_query_prefix(self, format=None, **options):
        prefix = super().explain_query_prefix(format)
        extra = {}
        if format:
            extra['FORMAT'] = format
        if options:
                name.upper(): 'true' if value else 'false'
                for name, value in options.items()
        if extra:
            prefix += ' (%s)' % ', '.join('%s %s' % i for i in extra.items())
        return prefix

    def ignore_conflicts_suffix_sql(self, ignore_conflicts=None):
        return 'ON CONFLICT DO NOTHING' if ignore_conflicts else super().ignore_conflicts_suffix_sql(ignore_conflicts)