View on GitHub


Test Coverage

Handlers are callables that receives the message.

The ``handler`` signature should be similar to::

    async def my_handler(message, metadata):
        ... code ...
        return True # or False

Where ``message`` is the message to be processed and ``metadata`` is a ``dict``
with metadata information.

The ``async def`` is the python coroutine syntax, but regular functions
can also be used, but will run in a thread, outside the event loop.

The return value indicates if the ``handler`` successfully processed the
message or not.
By returning ``True`` the message will be acknowledged (deleted).

Another way to acknowledge messages inside a handler is to raise
``DeleteMessage`` exception.

Any other exception will be redirected to an ``error_handler``, see more

The default ``error_handler`` will log the error and **not** acknowledge the message.

For some generic handlers that can give you a starting point, take a look at
:doc:`generic_handlers` section.

Class-based handlers

You can also write handlers using classes. The class should implement a
``handle`` coroutine/method::

    class MyHandler:

        async def handle(self, message, *args):
            ... code ...
            return True

         def stop(self):
            ... clean-up code ...

The method ``stop`` is optional and will be called before loafer shutdown it's
execution. Note that ``stop`` is not a coroutine.

When configuring your :doc:`routes`, you can set ``handler`` to an instance of
``MyHandler`` instead of the ``handle`` (the callable) method (but both ways work)::

    Route(handler=MyHandler(), ...)
    # or

Message dependency

Handlers are supposed to be stateless or have limited dependency on message values.
Since the same handler instance object are used to process the incoming messages,
we can't guarantee that an attached value will be kept among several concurrent
calls to the same handler.

This might be hard to detect in production and probably is an undesired side-effect::

    class Handler:

        async def foo(self):
            # do something with `self.some_value`
            ... code ...

        async def handle(self, message, *args):
            self.some_value = message['foo']
            return True