wikimedia/mediawiki-core

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languages/Language.php

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<?php
/**
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
 * with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
 * 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
 * http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html
 *
 * @file
 */

/**
 * @defgroup Language Language
 */

use CLDRPluralRuleParser\Evaluator;
use MediaWiki\HookContainer\HookContainer;
use MediaWiki\HookContainer\HookRunner;
use MediaWiki\Languages\LanguageConverterFactory;
use MediaWiki\Languages\LanguageFallback;
use MediaWiki\Languages\LanguageNameUtils;
use MediaWiki\Linker\LinkTarget;
use MediaWiki\MediaWikiServices;
use Wikimedia\Assert\Assert;

/**
 * Internationalisation code
 * See https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Special:MyLanguage/Localisation for more information.
 *
 * @ingroup Language
 */
class Language {
    /**
     * Return autonyms in fetchLanguageName(s).
     * @since 1.32
     * @deprecated since 1.34, LanguageNameUtils::AUTONYMS
     */
    public const AS_AUTONYMS = LanguageNameUtils::AUTONYMS;

    /**
     * Return all known languages in fetchLanguageName(s).
     * @since 1.32
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils::ALL
     */
    public const ALL = LanguageNameUtils::ALL;

    /**
     * Return in fetchLanguageName(s) only the languages for which we have at
     * least some localisation.
     * @since 1.32
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils::SUPPORTED
     */
    public const SUPPORTED = LanguageNameUtils::SUPPORTED;

    /**
     * Use PHP's magic __get handler to handle lazy accessing to
     * deprecated mConverter.
     *
     * @param string $name Field name
     * @return mixed
     */
    public function __get( string $name ) {
        if ( $name == "mConverter" ) {
            wfDeprecated( 'Language::mConverter', '1.35' );
            return $this->getConverter();
        }
        throw new RuntimeException( "Cannot get '$name' property." );
    }

    public $mCode;

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LocalisationCache with custom language config
     */
    public $mMagicExtensions = [];

    private $mHtmlCode = null;

    /**
     * memoize
     * @deprecated since 1.35, must be private
     */
    public $dateFormatStrings = [];

    /**
     * memoize
     * @var array[]
     * @deprecated since 1.35, must be protected
     */
    public $mExtendedSpecialPageAliases;

    /** @var array|null */
    protected $namespaceNames;
    protected $mNamespaceIds, $namespaceAliases;

    /**
     * ReplacementArray object memoize
     * @deprecated since 1.35, must be private
     */
    public $transformData = [];

    /** @var LocalisationCache */
    private $localisationCache;

    /** @var LanguageNameUtils */
    private $langNameUtils;

    /** @var LanguageFallback */
    private $langFallback;

    /** @var array[]|null */
    private $grammarTransformCache;

    /**
     * @var LanguageConverterFactory
     */
    private $converterFactory;

    /**
     * @var HookContainer
     */
    private $hookContainer;

    /**
     * @var HookRunner
     */
    private $hookRunner;

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFactory
     * @var array
     */
    public static $mLangObjCache = [];

    /**
     * Return a fallback chain for messages in getFallbacksFor
     * @since 1.32
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFallback::MESSAGES
     */
    public const MESSAGES_FALLBACKS = LanguageFallback::MESSAGES;

    /**
     * Return a strict fallback chain in getFallbacksFor
     * @since 1.32
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFallback::STRICT
     */
    public const STRICT_FALLBACKS = LanguageFallback::STRICT;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const WEEKDAY_MESSAGES = [
        'sunday', 'monday', 'tuesday', 'wednesday', 'thursday',
        'friday', 'saturday'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the WEEKDAY_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mWeekdayMsgs = self::WEEKDAY_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const WEEKDAY_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES = [
        'sun', 'mon', 'tue', 'wed', 'thu', 'fri', 'sat'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the WEEKDAY_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mWeekdayAbbrevMsgs = self::WEEKDAY_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const MONTH_MESSAGES = [
        'january', 'february', 'march', 'april', 'may_long', 'june',
        'july', 'august', 'september', 'october', 'november',
        'december'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the MONTH_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mMonthMsgs = self::MONTH_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES = [
        'january-gen', 'february-gen', 'march-gen', 'april-gen', 'may-gen', 'june-gen',
        'july-gen', 'august-gen', 'september-gen', 'october-gen', 'november-gen',
        'december-gen'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mMonthGenMsgs = self::MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const MONTH_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES = [
        'jan', 'feb', 'mar', 'apr', 'may', 'jun', 'jul', 'aug',
        'sep', 'oct', 'nov', 'dec'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the MONTH_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mMonthAbbrevMsgs = self::MONTH_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const IRANIAN_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES = [
        'iranian-calendar-m1', 'iranian-calendar-m2', 'iranian-calendar-m3',
        'iranian-calendar-m4', 'iranian-calendar-m5', 'iranian-calendar-m6',
        'iranian-calendar-m7', 'iranian-calendar-m8', 'iranian-calendar-m9',
        'iranian-calendar-m10', 'iranian-calendar-m11', 'iranian-calendar-m12'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the IRANIAN_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mIranianCalendarMonthMsgs = self::IRANIAN_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES = [
        'hebrew-calendar-m1', 'hebrew-calendar-m2', 'hebrew-calendar-m3',
        'hebrew-calendar-m4', 'hebrew-calendar-m5', 'hebrew-calendar-m6',
        'hebrew-calendar-m7', 'hebrew-calendar-m8', 'hebrew-calendar-m9',
        'hebrew-calendar-m10', 'hebrew-calendar-m11', 'hebrew-calendar-m12',
        'hebrew-calendar-m6a', 'hebrew-calendar-m6b'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mHebrewCalendarMonthMsgs = self::HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES = [
        'hebrew-calendar-m1-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m2-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m3-gen',
        'hebrew-calendar-m4-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m5-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m6-gen',
        'hebrew-calendar-m7-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m8-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m9-gen',
        'hebrew-calendar-m10-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m11-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m12-gen',
        'hebrew-calendar-m6a-gen', 'hebrew-calendar-m6b-gen'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mHebrewCalendarMonthGenMsgs = self::HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    public const HIJRI_CALENDAR_MONTH_MESSAGES = [
        'hijri-calendar-m1', 'hijri-calendar-m2', 'hijri-calendar-m3',
        'hijri-calendar-m4', 'hijri-calendar-m5', 'hijri-calendar-m6',
        'hijri-calendar-m7', 'hijri-calendar-m8', 'hijri-calendar-m9',
        'hijri-calendar-m10', 'hijri-calendar-m11', 'hijri-calendar-m12'
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the HIJRI_CALENDAR_MONTH_MESSAGES constant
     */
    public static $mHijriCalendarMonthMsgs = self::HIJRI_CALENDAR_MONTH_MESSAGES;

    /**
     * @since 1.35
     */
    protected const DURATION_INTERVALS = [
        'millennia' => 31556952000,
        'centuries' => 3155695200,
        'decades' => 315569520,
        'years' => 31556952, // 86400 * ( 365 + ( 24 * 3 + 25 ) / 400 )
        'weeks' => 604800,
        'days' => 86400,
        'hours' => 3600,
        'minutes' => 60,
        'seconds' => 1,
    ];

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use the DURATION_INTERVALS constant
     * @since 1.20
     * @var array
     */
    public static $durationIntervals = self::DURATION_INTERVALS;

    /**
     * Unicode directional formatting characters, for embedBidi()
     */
    private const LRE = "\u{202A}"; // U+202A LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING
    private const RLE = "\u{202B}"; // U+202B RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING
    private const PDF = "\u{202C}"; // U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING

    /**
     * Directionality test regex for embedBidi(). Matches the first strong directionality codepoint:
     * - in group 1 if it is LTR
     * - in group 2 if it is RTL
     * Does not match if there is no strong directionality codepoint.
     *
     * The form is '/(?:([strong ltr codepoint])|([strong rtl codepoint]))/u' .
     *
     * Generated by UnicodeJS (see tools/strongDir) from the UCD; see
     * https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/diffusion/GUJS/ .
     */
    // @codeCoverageIgnoreStart
    // phpcs:ignore Generic.Files.LineLength
    private static $strongDirRegex = '/(?:([\x{41}-\x{5a}\x{61}-\x{7a}\x{aa}\x{b5}\x{ba}\x{c0}-\x{d6}\x{d8}-\x{f6}\x{f8}-\x{2b8}\x{2bb}-\x{2c1}\x{2d0}\x{2d1}\x{2e0}-\x{2e4}\x{2ee}\x{370}-\x{373}\x{376}\x{377}\x{37a}-\x{37d}\x{37f}\x{386}\x{388}-\x{38a}\x{38c}\x{38e}-\x{3a1}\x{3a3}-\x{3f5}\x{3f7}-\x{482}\x{48a}-\x{52f}\x{531}-\x{556}\x{559}-\x{55f}\x{561}-\x{587}\x{589}\x{903}-\x{939}\x{93b}\x{93d}-\x{940}\x{949}-\x{94c}\x{94e}-\x{950}\x{958}-\x{961}\x{964}-\x{980}\x{982}\x{983}\x{985}-\x{98c}\x{98f}\x{990}\x{993}-\x{9a8}\x{9aa}-\x{9b0}\x{9b2}\x{9b6}-\x{9b9}\x{9bd}-\x{9c0}\x{9c7}\x{9c8}\x{9cb}\x{9cc}\x{9ce}\x{9d7}\x{9dc}\x{9dd}\x{9df}-\x{9e1}\x{9e6}-\x{9f1}\x{9f4}-\x{9fa}\x{a03}\x{a05}-\x{a0a}\x{a0f}\x{a10}\x{a13}-\x{a28}\x{a2a}-\x{a30}\x{a32}\x{a33}\x{a35}\x{a36}\x{a38}\x{a39}\x{a3e}-\x{a40}\x{a59}-\x{a5c}\x{a5e}\x{a66}-\x{a6f}\x{a72}-\x{a74}\x{a83}\x{a85}-\x{a8d}\x{a8f}-\x{a91}\x{a93}-\x{aa8}\x{aaa}-\x{ab0}\x{ab2}\x{ab3}\x{ab5}-\x{ab9}\x{abd}-\x{ac0}\x{ac9}\x{acb}\x{acc}\x{ad0}\x{ae0}\x{ae1}\x{ae6}-\x{af0}\x{af9}\x{b02}\x{b03}\x{b05}-\x{b0c}\x{b0f}\x{b10}\x{b13}-\x{b28}\x{b2a}-\x{b30}\x{b32}\x{b33}\x{b35}-\x{b39}\x{b3d}\x{b3e}\x{b40}\x{b47}\x{b48}\x{b4b}\x{b4c}\x{b57}\x{b5c}\x{b5d}\x{b5f}-\x{b61}\x{b66}-\x{b77}\x{b83}\x{b85}-\x{b8a}\x{b8e}-\x{b90}\x{b92}-\x{b95}\x{b99}\x{b9a}\x{b9c}\x{b9e}\x{b9f}\x{ba3}\x{ba4}\x{ba8}-\x{baa}\x{bae}-\x{bb9}\x{bbe}\x{bbf}\x{bc1}\x{bc2}\x{bc6}-\x{bc8}\x{bca}-\x{bcc}\x{bd0}\x{bd7}\x{be6}-\x{bf2}\x{c01}-\x{c03}\x{c05}-\x{c0c}\x{c0e}-\x{c10}\x{c12}-\x{c28}\x{c2a}-\x{c39}\x{c3d}\x{c41}-\x{c44}\x{c58}-\x{c5a}\x{c60}\x{c61}\x{c66}-\x{c6f}\x{c7f}\x{c82}\x{c83}\x{c85}-\x{c8c}\x{c8e}-\x{c90}\x{c92}-\x{ca8}\x{caa}-\x{cb3}\x{cb5}-\x{cb9}\x{cbd}-\x{cc4}\x{cc6}-\x{cc8}\x{cca}\x{ccb}\x{cd5}\x{cd6}\x{cde}\x{ce0}\x{ce1}\x{ce6}-\x{cef}\x{cf1}\x{cf2}\x{d02}\x{d03}\x{d05}-\x{d0c}\x{d0e}-\x{d10}\x{d12}-\x{d3a}\x{d3d}-\x{d40}\x{d46}-\x{d48}\x{d4a}-\x{d4c}\x{d4e}\x{d57}\x{d5f}-\x{d61}\x{d66}-\x{d75}\x{d79}-\x{d7f}\x{d82}\x{d83}\x{d85}-\x{d96}\x{d9a}-\x{db1}\x{db3}-\x{dbb}\x{dbd}\x{dc0}-\x{dc6}\x{dcf}-\x{dd1}\x{dd8}-\x{ddf}\x{de6}-\x{def}\x{df2}-\x{df4}\x{e01}-\x{e30}\x{e32}\x{e33}\x{e40}-\x{e46}\x{e4f}-\x{e5b}\x{e81}\x{e82}\x{e84}\x{e87}\x{e88}\x{e8a}\x{e8d}\x{e94}-\x{e97}\x{e99}-\x{e9f}\x{ea1}-\x{ea3}\x{ea5}\x{ea7}\x{eaa}\x{eab}\x{ead}-\x{eb0}\x{eb2}\x{eb3}\x{ebd}\x{ec0}-\x{ec4}\x{ec6}\x{ed0}-\x{ed9}\x{edc}-\x{edf}\x{f00}-\x{f17}\x{f1a}-\x{f34}\x{f36}\x{f38}\x{f3e}-\x{f47}\x{f49}-\x{f6c}\x{f7f}\x{f85}\x{f88}-\x{f8c}\x{fbe}-\x{fc5}\x{fc7}-\x{fcc}\x{fce}-\x{fda}\x{1000}-\x{102c}\x{1031}\x{1038}\x{103b}\x{103c}\x{103f}-\x{1057}\x{105a}-\x{105d}\x{1061}-\x{1070}\x{1075}-\x{1081}\x{1083}\x{1084}\x{1087}-\x{108c}\x{108e}-\x{109c}\x{109e}-\x{10c5}\x{10c7}\x{10cd}\x{10d0}-\x{1248}\x{124a}-\x{124d}\x{1250}-\x{1256}\x{1258}\x{125a}-\x{125d}\x{1260}-\x{1288}\x{128a}-\x{128d}\x{1290}-\x{12b0}\x{12b2}-\x{12b5}\x{12b8}-\x{12be}\x{12c0}\x{12c2}-\x{12c5}\x{12c8}-\x{12d6}\x{12d8}-\x{1310}\x{1312}-\x{1315}\x{1318}-\x{135a}\x{1360}-\x{137c}\x{1380}-\x{138f}\x{13a0}-\x{13f5}\x{13f8}-\x{13fd}\x{1401}-\x{167f}\x{1681}-\x{169a}\x{16a0}-\x{16f8}\x{1700}-\x{170c}\x{170e}-\x{1711}\x{1720}-\x{1731}\x{1735}\x{1736}\x{1740}-\x{1751}\x{1760}-\x{176c}\x{176e}-\x{1770}\x{1780}-\x{17b3}\x{17b6}\x{17be}-\x{17c5}\x{17c7}\x{17c8}\x{17d4}-\x{17da}\x{17dc}\x{17e0}-\x{17e9}\x{1810}-\x{1819}\x{1820}-\x{1877}\x{1880}-\x{18a8}\x{18aa}\x{18b0}-\x{18f5}\x{1900}-\x{191e}\x{1923}-\x{1926}\x{1929}-\x{192b}\x{1930}\x{1931}\x{1933}-\x{1938}\x{1946}-\x{196d}\x{1970}-\x{1974}\x{1980}-\x{19ab}\x{19b0}-\x{19c9}\x{19d0}-\x{19da}\x{1a00}-\x{1a16}\x{1a19}\x{1a1a}\x{1a1e}-\x{1a55}\x{1a57}\x{1a61}\x{1a63}\x{1a64}\x{1a6d}-\x{1a72}\x{1a80}-\x{1a89}\x{1a90}-\x{1a99}\x{1aa0}-\x{1aad}\x{1b04}-\x{1b33}\x{1b35}\x{1b3b}\x{1b3d}-\x{1b41}\x{1b43}-\x{1b4b}\x{1b50}-\x{1b6a}\x{1b74}-\x{1b7c}\x{1b82}-\x{1ba1}\x{1ba6}\x{1ba7}\x{1baa}\x{1bae}-\x{1be5}\x{1be7}\x{1bea}-\x{1bec}\x{1bee}\x{1bf2}\x{1bf3}\x{1bfc}-\x{1c2b}\x{1c34}\x{1c35}\x{1c3b}-\x{1c49}\x{1c4d}-\x{1c7f}\x{1cc0}-\x{1cc7}\x{1cd3}\x{1ce1}\x{1ce9}-\x{1cec}\x{1cee}-\x{1cf3}\x{1cf5}\x{1cf6}\x{1d00}-\x{1dbf}\x{1e00}-\x{1f15}\x{1f18}-\x{1f1d}\x{1f20}-\x{1f45}\x{1f48}-\x{1f4d}\x{1f50}-\x{1f57}\x{1f59}\x{1f5b}\x{1f5d}\x{1f5f}-\x{1f7d}\x{1f80}-\x{1fb4}\x{1fb6}-\x{1fbc}\x{1fbe}\x{1fc2}-\x{1fc4}\x{1fc6}-\x{1fcc}\x{1fd0}-\x{1fd3}\x{1fd6}-\x{1fdb}\x{1fe0}-\x{1fec}\x{1ff2}-\x{1ff4}\x{1ff6}-\x{1ffc}\x{200e}\x{2071}\x{207f}\x{2090}-\x{209c}\x{2102}\x{2107}\x{210a}-\x{2113}\x{2115}\x{2119}-\x{211d}\x{2124}\x{2126}\x{2128}\x{212a}-\x{212d}\x{212f}-\x{2139}\x{213c}-\x{213f}\x{2145}-\x{2149}\x{214e}\x{214f}\x{2160}-\x{2188}\x{2336}-\x{237a}\x{2395}\x{249c}-\x{24e9}\x{26ac}\x{2800}-\x{28ff}\x{2c00}-\x{2c2e}\x{2c30}-\x{2c5e}\x{2c60}-\x{2ce4}\x{2ceb}-\x{2cee}\x{2cf2}\x{2cf3}\x{2d00}-\x{2d25}\x{2d27}\x{2d2d}\x{2d30}-\x{2d67}\x{2d6f}\x{2d70}\x{2d80}-\x{2d96}\x{2da0}-\x{2da6}\x{2da8}-\x{2dae}\x{2db0}-\x{2db6}\x{2db8}-\x{2dbe}\x{2dc0}-\x{2dc6}\x{2dc8}-\x{2dce}\x{2dd0}-\x{2dd6}\x{2dd8}-\x{2dde}\x{3005}-\x{3007}\x{3021}-\x{3029}\x{302e}\x{302f}\x{3031}-\x{3035}\x{3038}-\x{303c}\x{3041}-\x{3096}\x{309d}-\x{309f}\x{30a1}-\x{30fa}\x{30fc}-\x{30ff}\x{3105}-\x{312d}\x{3131}-\x{318e}\x{3190}-\x{31ba}\x{31f0}-\x{321c}\x{3220}-\x{324f}\x{3260}-\x{327b}\x{327f}-\x{32b0}\x{32c0}-\x{32cb}\x{32d0}-\x{32fe}\x{3300}-\x{3376}\x{337b}-\x{33dd}\x{33e0}-\x{33fe}\x{3400}-\x{4db5}\x{4e00}-\x{9fd5}\x{a000}-\x{a48c}\x{a4d0}-\x{a60c}\x{a610}-\x{a62b}\x{a640}-\x{a66e}\x{a680}-\x{a69d}\x{a6a0}-\x{a6ef}\x{a6f2}-\x{a6f7}\x{a722}-\x{a787}\x{a789}-\x{a7ad}\x{a7b0}-\x{a7b7}\x{a7f7}-\x{a801}\x{a803}-\x{a805}\x{a807}-\x{a80a}\x{a80c}-\x{a824}\x{a827}\x{a830}-\x{a837}\x{a840}-\x{a873}\x{a880}-\x{a8c3}\x{a8ce}-\x{a8d9}\x{a8f2}-\x{a8fd}\x{a900}-\x{a925}\x{a92e}-\x{a946}\x{a952}\x{a953}\x{a95f}-\x{a97c}\x{a983}-\x{a9b2}\x{a9b4}\x{a9b5}\x{a9ba}\x{a9bb}\x{a9bd}-\x{a9cd}\x{a9cf}-\x{a9d9}\x{a9de}-\x{a9e4}\x{a9e6}-\x{a9fe}\x{aa00}-\x{aa28}\x{aa2f}\x{aa30}\x{aa33}\x{aa34}\x{aa40}-\x{aa42}\x{aa44}-\x{aa4b}\x{aa4d}\x{aa50}-\x{aa59}\x{aa5c}-\x{aa7b}\x{aa7d}-\x{aaaf}\x{aab1}\x{aab5}\x{aab6}\x{aab9}-\x{aabd}\x{aac0}\x{aac2}\x{aadb}-\x{aaeb}\x{aaee}-\x{aaf5}\x{ab01}-\x{ab06}\x{ab09}-\x{ab0e}\x{ab11}-\x{ab16}\x{ab20}-\x{ab26}\x{ab28}-\x{ab2e}\x{ab30}-\x{ab65}\x{ab70}-\x{abe4}\x{abe6}\x{abe7}\x{abe9}-\x{abec}\x{abf0}-\x{abf9}\x{ac00}-\x{d7a3}\x{d7b0}-\x{d7c6}\x{d7cb}-\x{d7fb}\x{e000}-\x{fa6d}\x{fa70}-\x{fad9}\x{fb00}-\x{fb06}\x{fb13}-\x{fb17}\x{ff21}-\x{ff3a}\x{ff41}-\x{ff5a}\x{ff66}-\x{ffbe}\x{ffc2}-\x{ffc7}\x{ffca}-\x{ffcf}\x{ffd2}-\x{ffd7}\x{ffda}-\x{ffdc}\x{10000}-\x{1000b}\x{1000d}-\x{10026}\x{10028}-\x{1003a}\x{1003c}\x{1003d}\x{1003f}-\x{1004d}\x{10050}-\x{1005d}\x{10080}-\x{100fa}\x{10100}\x{10102}\x{10107}-\x{10133}\x{10137}-\x{1013f}\x{101d0}-\x{101fc}\x{10280}-\x{1029c}\x{102a0}-\x{102d0}\x{10300}-\x{10323}\x{10330}-\x{1034a}\x{10350}-\x{10375}\x{10380}-\x{1039d}\x{1039f}-\x{103c3}\x{103c8}-\x{103d5}\x{10400}-\x{1049d}\x{104a0}-\x{104a9}\x{10500}-\x{10527}\x{10530}-\x{10563}\x{1056f}\x{10600}-\x{10736}\x{10740}-\x{10755}\x{10760}-\x{10767}\x{11000}\x{11002}-\x{11037}\x{11047}-\x{1104d}\x{11066}-\x{1106f}\x{11082}-\x{110b2}\x{110b7}\x{110b8}\x{110bb}-\x{110c1}\x{110d0}-\x{110e8}\x{110f0}-\x{110f9}\x{11103}-\x{11126}\x{1112c}\x{11136}-\x{11143}\x{11150}-\x{11172}\x{11174}-\x{11176}\x{11182}-\x{111b5}\x{111bf}-\x{111c9}\x{111cd}\x{111d0}-\x{111df}\x{111e1}-\x{111f4}\x{11200}-\x{11211}\x{11213}-\x{1122e}\x{11232}\x{11233}\x{11235}\x{11238}-\x{1123d}\x{11280}-\x{11286}\x{11288}\x{1128a}-\x{1128d}\x{1128f}-\x{1129d}\x{1129f}-\x{112a9}\x{112b0}-\x{112de}\x{112e0}-\x{112e2}\x{112f0}-\x{112f9}\x{11302}\x{11303}\x{11305}-\x{1130c}\x{1130f}\x{11310}\x{11313}-\x{11328}\x{1132a}-\x{11330}\x{11332}\x{11333}\x{11335}-\x{11339}\x{1133d}-\x{1133f}\x{11341}-\x{11344}\x{11347}\x{11348}\x{1134b}-\x{1134d}\x{11350}\x{11357}\x{1135d}-\x{11363}\x{11480}-\x{114b2}\x{114b9}\x{114bb}-\x{114be}\x{114c1}\x{114c4}-\x{114c7}\x{114d0}-\x{114d9}\x{11580}-\x{115b1}\x{115b8}-\x{115bb}\x{115be}\x{115c1}-\x{115db}\x{11600}-\x{11632}\x{1163b}\x{1163c}\x{1163e}\x{11641}-\x{11644}\x{11650}-\x{11659}\x{11680}-\x{116aa}\x{116ac}\x{116ae}\x{116af}\x{116b6}\x{116c0}-\x{116c9}\x{11700}-\x{11719}\x{11720}\x{11721}\x{11726}\x{11730}-\x{1173f}\x{118a0}-\x{118f2}\x{118ff}\x{11ac0}-\x{11af8}\x{12000}-\x{12399}\x{12400}-\x{1246e}\x{12470}-\x{12474}\x{12480}-\x{12543}\x{13000}-\x{1342e}\x{14400}-\x{14646}\x{16800}-\x{16a38}\x{16a40}-\x{16a5e}\x{16a60}-\x{16a69}\x{16a6e}\x{16a6f}\x{16ad0}-\x{16aed}\x{16af5}\x{16b00}-\x{16b2f}\x{16b37}-\x{16b45}\x{16b50}-\x{16b59}\x{16b5b}-\x{16b61}\x{16b63}-\x{16b77}\x{16b7d}-\x{16b8f}\x{16f00}-\x{16f44}\x{16f50}-\x{16f7e}\x{16f93}-\x{16f9f}\x{1b000}\x{1b001}\x{1bc00}-\x{1bc6a}\x{1bc70}-\x{1bc7c}\x{1bc80}-\x{1bc88}\x{1bc90}-\x{1bc99}\x{1bc9c}\x{1bc9f}\x{1d000}-\x{1d0f5}\x{1d100}-\x{1d126}\x{1d129}-\x{1d166}\x{1d16a}-\x{1d172}\x{1d183}\x{1d184}\x{1d18c}-\x{1d1a9}\x{1d1ae}-\x{1d1e8}\x{1d360}-\x{1d371}\x{1d400}-\x{1d454}\x{1d456}-\x{1d49c}\x{1d49e}\x{1d49f}\x{1d4a2}\x{1d4a5}\x{1d4a6}\x{1d4a9}-\x{1d4ac}\x{1d4ae}-\x{1d4b9}\x{1d4bb}\x{1d4bd}-\x{1d4c3}\x{1d4c5}-\x{1d505}\x{1d507}-\x{1d50a}\x{1d50d}-\x{1d514}\x{1d516}-\x{1d51c}\x{1d51e}-\x{1d539}\x{1d53b}-\x{1d53e}\x{1d540}-\x{1d544}\x{1d546}\x{1d54a}-\x{1d550}\x{1d552}-\x{1d6a5}\x{1d6a8}-\x{1d6da}\x{1d6dc}-\x{1d714}\x{1d716}-\x{1d74e}\x{1d750}-\x{1d788}\x{1d78a}-\x{1d7c2}\x{1d7c4}-\x{1d7cb}\x{1d800}-\x{1d9ff}\x{1da37}-\x{1da3a}\x{1da6d}-\x{1da74}\x{1da76}-\x{1da83}\x{1da85}-\x{1da8b}\x{1f110}-\x{1f12e}\x{1f130}-\x{1f169}\x{1f170}-\x{1f19a}\x{1f1e6}-\x{1f202}\x{1f210}-\x{1f23a}\x{1f240}-\x{1f248}\x{1f250}\x{1f251}\x{20000}-\x{2a6d6}\x{2a700}-\x{2b734}\x{2b740}-\x{2b81d}\x{2b820}-\x{2cea1}\x{2f800}-\x{2fa1d}\x{f0000}-\x{ffffd}\x{100000}-\x{10fffd}])|([\x{590}\x{5be}\x{5c0}\x{5c3}\x{5c6}\x{5c8}-\x{5ff}\x{7c0}-\x{7ea}\x{7f4}\x{7f5}\x{7fa}-\x{815}\x{81a}\x{824}\x{828}\x{82e}-\x{858}\x{85c}-\x{89f}\x{200f}\x{fb1d}\x{fb1f}-\x{fb28}\x{fb2a}-\x{fb4f}\x{10800}-\x{1091e}\x{10920}-\x{10a00}\x{10a04}\x{10a07}-\x{10a0b}\x{10a10}-\x{10a37}\x{10a3b}-\x{10a3e}\x{10a40}-\x{10ae4}\x{10ae7}-\x{10b38}\x{10b40}-\x{10e5f}\x{10e7f}-\x{10fff}\x{1e800}-\x{1e8cf}\x{1e8d7}-\x{1edff}\x{1ef00}-\x{1efff}\x{608}\x{60b}\x{60d}\x{61b}-\x{64a}\x{66d}-\x{66f}\x{671}-\x{6d5}\x{6e5}\x{6e6}\x{6ee}\x{6ef}\x{6fa}-\x{710}\x{712}-\x{72f}\x{74b}-\x{7a5}\x{7b1}-\x{7bf}\x{8a0}-\x{8e2}\x{fb50}-\x{fd3d}\x{fd40}-\x{fdcf}\x{fdf0}-\x{fdfc}\x{fdfe}\x{fdff}\x{fe70}-\x{fefe}\x{1ee00}-\x{1eeef}\x{1eef2}-\x{1eeff}]))/u';
    // @codeCoverageIgnoreEnd

    /**
     * Get a cached or new language object for a given language code
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFactory
     * @param string $code
     * @throws MWException
     * @return Language
     */
    public static function factory( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageFactory()->getLanguage( $code );
    }

    /**
     * Intended for tests that may change configuration in a way that invalidates caches.
     *
     * @since 1.32
     * @deprecated since 1.35. Instead, reset all services and set Language::$mLangObjCache = [].
     */
    public static function clearCaches() {
        wfDeprecated( __METHOD__, '1.35' );

        $services = MediaWikiServices::getInstance();

        $services->resetServiceForTesting( 'LanguageFallback' );
        $services->resetServiceForTesting( 'LanguageNameUtils' );
        $services->resetServiceForTesting( 'LocalisationCache' );
        $services->resetServiceForTesting( 'LanguageFactory' );

        self::$mLangObjCache = [];
    }

    /**
     * Checks whether any localisation is available for that language tag
     * in MediaWiki (MessagesXx.php exists).
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils
     * @param string $code Language tag (in lower case)
     * @return bool Whether language is supported
     * @since 1.21
     */
    public static function isSupportedLanguage( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->isSupportedLanguage( $code );
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if a language code string is a well-formed language tag
     * according to RFC 5646.
     * This function only checks well-formedness; it doesn't check that
     * language, script or variant codes actually exist in the repositories.
     *
     * Based on regexes by Mark Davis of the Unicode Consortium:
     * https://www.unicode.org/repos/cldr/trunk/tools/java/org/unicode/cldr/util/data/langtagRegex.txt
     *
     * @param string $code
     * @param bool $lenient Whether to allow '_' as separator. The default is only '-'.
     *
     * @return bool
     * @since 1.21
     */
    public static function isWellFormedLanguageTag( $code, $lenient = false ) {
        $alpha = '[a-z]';
        $digit = '[0-9]';
        $alphanum = '[a-z0-9]';
        $x = 'x'; # private use singleton
        $singleton = '[a-wy-z]'; # other singleton
        $s = $lenient ? '[-_]' : '-';

        $language = "$alpha{2,8}|$alpha{2,3}$s$alpha{3}";
        $script = "$alpha{4}"; # ISO 15924
        $region = "(?:$alpha{2}|$digit{3})"; # ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 or UN M.49
        $variant = "(?:$alphanum{5,8}|$digit$alphanum{3})";
        $extension = "$singleton(?:$s$alphanum{2,8})+";
        $privateUse = "$x(?:$s$alphanum{1,8})+";

        # Define certain grandfathered codes, since otherwise the regex is pretty useless.
        # Since these are limited, this is safe even later changes to the registry --
        # the only oddity is that it might change the type of the tag, and thus
        # the results from the capturing groups.
        # https://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry

        $grandfathered = "en{$s}GB{$s}oed"
            . "|i{$s}(?:ami|bnn|default|enochian|hak|klingon|lux|mingo|navajo|pwn|tao|tay|tsu)"
            . "|no{$s}(?:bok|nyn)"
            . "|sgn{$s}(?:BE{$s}(?:fr|nl)|CH{$s}de)"
            . "|zh{$s}min{$s}nan";

        $variantList = "$variant(?:$s$variant)*";
        $extensionList = "$extension(?:$s$extension)*";

        $langtag = "(?:($language)"
            . "(?:$s$script)?"
            . "(?:$s$region)?"
            . "(?:$s$variantList)?"
            . "(?:$s$extensionList)?"
            . "(?:$s$privateUse)?)";

        # The final breakdown, with capturing groups for each of these components
        # The variants, extensions, grandfathered, and private-use may have interior '-'

        $root = "^(?:$langtag|$privateUse|$grandfathered)$";

        return (bool)preg_match( "/$root/", strtolower( $code ) );
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if a language code string is of a valid form, whether or
     * not it exists. This includes codes which are used solely for
     * customisation via the MediaWiki namespace.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils
     *
     * @param string $code
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public static function isValidCode( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()->isValidCode( $code );
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if a language code is of a valid form for the purposes of
     * internal customisation of MediaWiki, via Messages*.php or *.json.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils
     *
     * @param string $code
     *
     * @since 1.18
     * @return bool
     */
    public static function isValidBuiltInCode( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->isValidBuiltInCode( $code );
    }

    /**
     * Returns true if a language code is an IETF tag known to MediaWiki.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils
     *
     * @param string $tag
     *
     * @since 1.21
     * @return bool
     */
    public static function isKnownLanguageTag( $tag ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->isKnownLanguageTag( $tag );
    }

    /**
     * Get the LocalisationCache instance
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use MediaWikiServices
     * @return LocalisationCache
     */
    public static function getLocalisationCache() {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLocalisationCache();
    }

    /**
     * @internal Calling this directly is deprecated. Use LanguageFactory instead.
     *
     * @param string|null $code Which code to use. Passing null is deprecated in 1.35.
     * @param LocalisationCache|null $localisationCache
     * @param LanguageNameUtils|null $langNameUtils
     * @param LanguageFallback|null $langFallback
     * @param LanguageConverterFactory|null $converterFactory
     * @param HookContainer|null $hookContainer
     */
    public function __construct(
        $code = null,
        LocalisationCache $localisationCache = null,
        LanguageNameUtils $langNameUtils = null,
        LanguageFallback $langFallback = null,
        LanguageConverterFactory $converterFactory = null,
        HookContainer $hookContainer = null
    ) {
        if ( !func_num_args() ) {
            // Old calling convention, deprecated
            if ( static::class === 'Language' ) {
                $this->mCode = 'en';
            } else {
                $this->mCode = str_replace( '_', '-', strtolower( substr( static::class, 8 ) ) );
            }

            $services = MediaWikiServices::getInstance();
            $this->localisationCache = $services->getLocalisationCache();
            $this->langNameUtils = $services->getLanguageNameUtils();
            $this->langFallback = $services->getLanguageFallback();
            $this->converterFactory = $services->getLanguageConverterFactory();
            $this->hookContainer = $services->getHookContainer();
            $this->hookRunner = new HookRunner( $this->hookContainer );
            return;
        }

        Assert::parameter( $code !== null, '$code',
            'Parameters cannot be null unless all are omitted' );
        Assert::parameter( $localisationCache !== null, '$localisationCache',
            'Parameters cannot be null unless all are omitted' );
        Assert::parameter( $langNameUtils !== null, '$langNameUtils',
            'Parameters cannot be null unless all are omitted' );
        Assert::parameter( $langFallback !== null, '$langFallback',
            'Parameters cannot be null unless all are omitted' );
        Assert::parameter( $converterFactory !== null, '$converterFactory',
            'Parameters cannot be null unless all are omitted' );
        Assert::parameter( $hookContainer !== null, '$hookContainer',
            'Parameters cannot be null unless all are omitted' );

        $this->mCode = $code;
        $this->localisationCache = $localisationCache;
        $this->langNameUtils = $langNameUtils;
        $this->langFallback = $langFallback;
        $this->converterFactory = $converterFactory;
        $this->hookContainer = $hookContainer;
        $this->hookRunner = new HookRunner( $hookContainer );
    }

    /**
     * Reduce memory usage
     * @suppress PhanTypeSuspiciousNonTraversableForeach
     */
    public function __destruct() {
        foreach ( $this as $name => $value ) {
            unset( $this->$name );
        }
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     * @since 1.19
     */
    public function getFallbackLanguages() {
        return $this->langFallback->getAll( $this->mCode );
    }

    /**
     * Exports $wgBookstoreListEn
     * @return array
     */
    public function getBookstoreList() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'bookstoreList' );
    }

    /**
     * Returns an array of localised namespaces indexed by their numbers. If the namespace is not
     * available in localised form, it will be included in English.
     *
     * @return string[] List of localized namespace names, indexed by numeric namespace ID.
     */
    public function getNamespaces() {
        if ( $this->namespaceNames === null ) {
            global $wgMetaNamespace, $wgMetaNamespaceTalk, $wgExtraNamespaces;

            $validNamespaces = MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getNamespaceInfo()->
                getCanonicalNamespaces();

            $this->namespaceNames = $wgExtraNamespaces +
                $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'namespaceNames' );
            $this->namespaceNames += $validNamespaces;

            $this->namespaceNames[NS_PROJECT] = $wgMetaNamespace;
            if ( $wgMetaNamespaceTalk ) {
                $this->namespaceNames[NS_PROJECT_TALK] = $wgMetaNamespaceTalk;
            } else {
                $talk = $this->namespaceNames[NS_PROJECT_TALK];
                $this->namespaceNames[NS_PROJECT_TALK] =
                    $this->fixVariableInNamespace( $talk );
            }

            # Sometimes a language will be localised but not actually exist on this wiki.
            foreach ( $this->namespaceNames as $key => $text ) {
                if ( !isset( $validNamespaces[$key] ) ) {
                    unset( $this->namespaceNames[$key] );
                }
            }

            # The above mixing may leave namespaces out of canonical order.
            # Re-order by namespace ID number...
            ksort( $this->namespaceNames );

            $this->getHookRunner()->onLanguageGetNamespaces( $this->namespaceNames );
        }

        return $this->namespaceNames;
    }

    /**
     * Arbitrarily set all of the namespace names at once. Mainly used for testing
     * @param array $namespaces Array of namespaces (id => name)
     */
    public function setNamespaces( array $namespaces ) {
        $this->namespaceNames = $namespaces;
        $this->mNamespaceIds = null;
    }

    /**
     * Resets all of the namespace caches. Mainly used for testing
     */
    public function resetNamespaces() {
        $this->namespaceNames = null;
        $this->mNamespaceIds = null;
        $this->namespaceAliases = null;
    }

    /**
     * A convenience function that returns getNamespaces() with spaces instead of underscores
     * in values. Useful for producing output to be displayed e.g. in `<select>` forms.
     *
     * @return array
     */
    public function getFormattedNamespaces() {
        $ns = $this->getNamespaces();
        foreach ( $ns as $k => $v ) {
            $ns[$k] = strtr( $v, '_', ' ' );
        }
        return $ns;
    }

    /**
     * Get a namespace value by key
     *
     * <code>
     * $mw_ns = $lang->getNsText( NS_MEDIAWIKI );
     * echo $mw_ns; // prints 'MediaWiki'
     * </code>
     *
     * @param int $index The array key of the namespace to return
     * @return string|bool String if the namespace value exists, otherwise false
     */
    public function getNsText( $index ) {
        $ns = $this->getNamespaces();
        return $ns[$index] ?? false;
    }

    /**
     * A convenience function that returns the same thing as
     * getNsText() except with '_' changed to ' ', useful for
     * producing output.
     *
     * <code>
     * $mw_ns = $lang->getFormattedNsText( NS_MEDIAWIKI_TALK );
     * echo $mw_ns; // prints 'MediaWiki talk'
     * </code>
     *
     * @param int $index The array key of the namespace to return
     * @return string Namespace name without underscores (empty string if namespace does not exist)
     */
    public function getFormattedNsText( $index ) {
        $ns = $this->getNsText( $index );
        return strtr( $ns, '_', ' ' );
    }

    /**
     * Returns gender-dependent namespace alias if available.
     * See https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Manual:$wgExtraGenderNamespaces
     * @param int $index Namespace index
     * @param string $gender Gender key (male, female... )
     * @return string
     * @since 1.18
     */
    public function getGenderNsText( $index, $gender ) {
        global $wgExtraGenderNamespaces;

        $ns = $wgExtraGenderNamespaces +
            (array)$this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'namespaceGenderAliases' );

        return $ns[$index][$gender] ?? $this->getNsText( $index );
    }

    /**
     * Whether this language uses gender-dependent namespace aliases.
     * See https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Manual:$wgExtraGenderNamespaces
     * @return bool
     * @since 1.18
     */
    public function needsGenderDistinction() {
        global $wgExtraGenderNamespaces, $wgExtraNamespaces;
        if ( count( $wgExtraGenderNamespaces ) > 0 ) {
            // $wgExtraGenderNamespaces overrides everything
            return true;
        } elseif ( isset( $wgExtraNamespaces[NS_USER] ) && isset( $wgExtraNamespaces[NS_USER_TALK] ) ) {
            /// @todo There may be other gender namespace than NS_USER & NS_USER_TALK in the future
            // $wgExtraNamespaces overrides any gender aliases specified in i18n files
            return false;
        } else {
            // Check what is in i18n files
            $aliases = $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'namespaceGenderAliases' );
            return count( $aliases ) > 0;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Get a namespace key by value, case insensitive.
     * Only matches namespace names for the current language, not the
     * canonical ones defined in Namespace.php.
     *
     * @param string $text
     * @return int|bool An integer if $text is a valid value otherwise false
     */
    public function getLocalNsIndex( $text ) {
        $lctext = $this->lc( $text );
        $ids = $this->getNamespaceIds();
        return $ids[$lctext] ?? false;
    }

    /**
     * @return array<string,int> Map from names to namespace IDs. Note that each
     * namepace ID can have multiple alias.
     */
    public function getNamespaceAliases() {
        if ( $this->namespaceAliases === null ) {
            $aliases = $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'namespaceAliases' );
            if ( !$aliases ) {
                $aliases = [];
            } else {
                foreach ( $aliases as $name => $index ) {
                    if ( $index === NS_PROJECT_TALK ) {
                        unset( $aliases[$name] );
                        $name = $this->fixVariableInNamespace( $name );
                        $aliases[$name] = $index;
                    }
                }
            }

            global $wgExtraGenderNamespaces;
            $genders = $wgExtraGenderNamespaces + (array)$this->localisationCache
                ->getItem( $this->mCode, 'namespaceGenderAliases' );
            foreach ( $genders as $index => $forms ) {
                foreach ( $forms as $alias ) {
                    $aliases[$alias] = $index;
                }
            }

            # Also add converted namespace names as aliases, to avoid confusion.
            $convertedNames = [];
            foreach ( $this->getConverter()->getVariants() as $variant ) {
                if ( $variant === $this->mCode ) {
                    continue;
                }
                foreach ( $this->getNamespaces() as $ns => $_ ) {
                    $convertedNames[$this->getConverter()->convertNamespace( $ns, $variant )] = $ns;
                }
            }

            $this->namespaceAliases = $aliases + $convertedNames;

            // In the case of conflicts between $wgNamespaceAliases and other sources
            // of aliasing, $wgNamespaceAliases wins.
            global $wgNamespaceAliases;
            $this->namespaceAliases = $wgNamespaceAliases + $this->namespaceAliases;

            # Filter out aliases to namespaces that don't exist, e.g. from extensions
            # that aren't loaded here but are included in the l10n cache.
            # (array_intersect preserves keys from its first argument)
            $this->namespaceAliases = array_intersect(
                $this->namespaceAliases,
                array_keys( $this->getNamespaces() )
            );
        }

        return $this->namespaceAliases;
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function getNamespaceIds() {
        if ( $this->mNamespaceIds === null ) {
            # Put namespace names and aliases into a hashtable.
            # If this is too slow, then we should arrange it so that it is done
            # before caching. The catch is that at pre-cache time, the above
            # class-specific fixup hasn't been done.
            $this->mNamespaceIds = [];
            foreach ( $this->getNamespaces() as $index => $name ) {
                $this->mNamespaceIds[$this->lc( $name )] = $index;
            }
            foreach ( $this->getNamespaceAliases() as $name => $index ) {
                $this->mNamespaceIds[$this->lc( $name )] = $index;
            }
        }
        return $this->mNamespaceIds;
    }

    /**
     * Get a namespace key by value, case insensitive.  Canonical namespace
     * names override custom ones defined for the current language.
     *
     * @param string $text
     * @return int|bool An integer if $text is a valid value otherwise false
     */
    public function getNsIndex( $text ) {
        $lctext = $this->lc( $text );
        $ns = MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getNamespaceInfo()->
            getCanonicalIndex( $lctext );
        if ( $ns !== null ) {
            return $ns;
        }
        $ids = $this->getNamespaceIds();
        return $ids[$lctext] ?? false;
    }

    /**
     * short names for language variants used for language conversion links.
     *
     * @param string $code
     * @param bool $usemsg Use the "variantname-xyz" message if it exists
     * @return string
     */
    public function getVariantname( $code, $usemsg = true ) {
        $msg = "variantname-$code";
        if ( $usemsg && wfMessage( $msg )->exists() ) {
            return $this->getMessageFromDB( $msg );
        }
        $name = $this->langNameUtils->getLanguageName( $code );
        if ( $name ) {
            return $name; # if it's defined as a language name, show that
        } else {
            # otherwise, output the language code
            return $code;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @return string[]|bool List of date format preference keys, or false if disabled.
     */
    public function getDatePreferences() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'datePreferences' );
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function getDateFormats() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'dateFormats' );
    }

    /**
     * @return array|string
     */
    public function getDefaultDateFormat() {
        $df = $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'defaultDateFormat' );
        if ( $df === 'dmy or mdy' ) {
            global $wgAmericanDates;
            return $wgAmericanDates ? 'mdy' : 'dmy';
        } else {
            return $df;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function getDatePreferenceMigrationMap() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'datePreferenceMigrationMap' );
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function getExtraUserToggles() {
        wfDeprecated( __METHOD__, '1.34' );
        return [];
    }

    /**
     * Get an array of language names, indexed by code.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils::getLanguageNames
     * @param null|string $inLanguage Code of language in which to return the names
     *         Use LanguageNameUtils::AUTONYMS for autonyms (native names)
     * @param string $include One of:
     *         LanguageNameUtils::AUTONYMS all available languages
     *         'mw' only if the language is defined in MediaWiki
     *          or wgExtraLanguageNames (default)
     *         LanguageNameUtils::SUPPORTED only if the language is in 'mw' *and*
     *          has a message file
     * @return array Language code => language name (sorted by key)
     * @since 1.20
     */
    public static function fetchLanguageNames(
        $inLanguage = LanguageNameUtils::AUTONYMS,
        $include = 'mw'
    ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->getLanguageNames( $inLanguage, $include );
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils::getLanguageName
     * @param string $code The code of the language for which to get the name
     * @param null|string $inLanguage Code of language in which to return the name
     *   (LanguageNameUtils::AUTONYMS for autonyms)
     * @param string $include See fetchLanguageNames()
     * @return string Language name or empty
     * @since 1.20
     */
    public static function fetchLanguageName(
        $code,
        $inLanguage = LanguageNameUtils::AUTONYMS,
        $include = LanguageNameUtils::ALL
    ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->getLanguageName( $code, $inLanguage, $include );
    }

    /**
     * Get a message from the MediaWiki namespace.
     *
     * @param string $msg Message name
     * @return string
     */
    public function getMessageFromDB( $msg ) {
        return $this->msg( $msg )->text();
    }

    /**
     * Get message object in this language. Only for use inside this class.
     *
     * @param string $msg Message name
     * @return Message
     */
    protected function msg( $msg ) {
        return wfMessage( $msg )->inLanguage( $this );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    public function getMonthName( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::MONTH_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function getMonthNamesArray() {
        $monthNames = [ '' ];
        for ( $i = 1; $i < 13; $i++ ) {
            $monthNames[] = $this->getMonthName( $i );
        }
        return $monthNames;
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    public function getMonthNameGen( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    public function getMonthAbbreviation( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::MONTH_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function getMonthAbbreviationsArray() {
        $monthNames = [ '' ];
        for ( $i = 1; $i < 13; $i++ ) {
            $monthNames[] = $this->getMonthAbbreviation( $i );
        }
        return $monthNames;
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    public function getWeekdayName( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::WEEKDAY_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    public function getWeekdayAbbreviation( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::WEEKDAY_ABBREVIATED_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    private function getIranianCalendarMonthName( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::IRANIAN_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    private function getHebrewCalendarMonthName( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTHS_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    private function getHebrewCalendarMonthNameGen( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::HEBREW_CALENDAR_MONTH_GENITIVE_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $key
     * @return string
     */
    private function getHijriCalendarMonthName( $key ) {
        return $this->getMessageFromDB( self::HIJRI_CALENDAR_MONTH_MESSAGES[$key - 1] );
    }

    /**
     * Pass through result from $dateTimeObj->format()
     * @param DateTime|bool|null &$dateTimeObj
     * @param string $ts
     * @param DateTimeZone|bool|null $zone
     * @param string $code
     * @return string
     */
    private static function dateTimeObjFormat( &$dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code ) {
        if ( !$dateTimeObj ) {
            $dateTimeObj = DateTime::createFromFormat(
                'YmdHis', $ts, $zone ?: new DateTimeZone( 'UTC' )
            );
        }
        return $dateTimeObj->format( $code );
    }

    /**
     * This is a workalike of PHP's date() function, but with better
     * internationalisation, a reduced set of format characters, and a better
     * escaping format.
     *
     * Supported format characters are dDjlNwzWFmMntLoYyaAgGhHiscrUeIOPTZ. See
     * the PHP manual for definitions. There are a number of extensions, which
     * start with "x":
     *
     *    xn   Do not translate digits of the next numeric format character
     *    xN   Toggle raw digit (xn) flag, stays set until explicitly unset
     *    xr   Use roman numerals for the next numeric format character
     *    xh   Use hebrew numerals for the next numeric format character
     *    xx   Literal x
     *    xg   Genitive month name
     *
     *    xij  j (day number) in Iranian calendar
     *    xiF  F (month name) in Iranian calendar
     *    xin  n (month number) in Iranian calendar
     *    xiy  y (two digit year) in Iranian calendar
     *    xiY  Y (full year) in Iranian calendar
     *    xit  t (days in month) in Iranian calendar
     *    xiz  z (day of the year) in Iranian calendar
     *
     *    xjj  j (day number) in Hebrew calendar
     *    xjF  F (month name) in Hebrew calendar
     *    xjt  t (days in month) in Hebrew calendar
     *    xjx  xg (genitive month name) in Hebrew calendar
     *    xjn  n (month number) in Hebrew calendar
     *    xjY  Y (full year) in Hebrew calendar
     *
     *    xmj  j (day number) in Hijri calendar
     *    xmF  F (month name) in Hijri calendar
     *    xmn  n (month number) in Hijri calendar
     *    xmY  Y (full year) in Hijri calendar
     *
     *    xkY  Y (full year) in Thai solar calendar. Months and days are
     *                       identical to the Gregorian calendar
     *    xoY  Y (full year) in Minguo calendar or Juche year.
     *                       Months and days are identical to the
     *                       Gregorian calendar
     *    xtY  Y (full year) in Japanese nengo. Months and days are
     *                       identical to the Gregorian calendar
     *
     * Characters enclosed in double quotes will be considered literal (with
     * the quotes themselves removed). Unmatched quotes will be considered
     * literal quotes. Example:
     *
     * "The month is" F       => The month is January
     * i's"                   => 20'11"
     *
     * Backslash escaping is also supported.
     *
     * Input timestamp is assumed to be pre-normalized to the desired local
     * time zone, if any. Note that the format characters crUeIOPTZ will assume
     * $ts is UTC if $zone is not given.
     *
     * @param string $format
     * @param string $ts 14-character timestamp
     *      YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
     *      01234567890123
     * @param DateTimeZone|null $zone Timezone of $ts
     * @param int|null &$ttl The amount of time (in seconds) the output may be cached for.
     * Only makes sense if $ts is the current time.
     * @todo handling of "o" format character for Iranian, Hebrew, Hijri & Thai?
     *
     * @throws MWException
     * @return string
     * @return-taint tainted
     */
    public function sprintfDate( $format, $ts, DateTimeZone $zone = null, &$ttl = 'unused' ) {
        $s = '';
        $raw = false;
        $roman = false;
        $hebrewNum = false;
        $dateTimeObj = false;
        $rawToggle = false;
        $iranian = false;
        $hebrew = false;
        $hijri = false;
        $thai = false;
        $minguo = false;
        $tenno = false;

        $usedSecond = false;
        $usedMinute = false;
        $usedHour = false;
        $usedAMPM = false;
        $usedDay = false;
        $usedWeek = false;
        $usedMonth = false;
        $usedYear = false;
        $usedISOYear = false;
        $usedIsLeapYear = false;

        $usedHebrewMonth = false;
        $usedIranianMonth = false;
        $usedHijriMonth = false;
        $usedHebrewYear = false;
        $usedIranianYear = false;
        $usedHijriYear = false;
        $usedTennoYear = false;

        if ( strlen( $ts ) !== 14 ) {
            throw new MWException( __METHOD__ . ": The timestamp $ts should have 14 characters" );
        }

        if ( !ctype_digit( $ts ) ) {
            throw new MWException( __METHOD__ . ": The timestamp $ts should be a number" );
        }

        $formatLength = strlen( $format );
        for ( $p = 0; $p < $formatLength; $p++ ) {
            $num = false;
            $code = $format[$p];
            if ( $code == 'x' && $p < $formatLength - 1 ) {
                $code .= $format[++$p];
            }

            if ( ( $code === 'xi'
                    || $code === 'xj'
                    || $code === 'xk'
                    || $code === 'xm'
                    || $code === 'xo'
                    || $code === 'xt' )
                && $p < $formatLength - 1 ) {
                $code .= $format[++$p];
            }

            switch ( $code ) {
                case 'xx':
                    $s .= 'x';
                    break;
                case 'xn':
                    $raw = true;
                    break;
                case 'xN':
                    $rawToggle = !$rawToggle;
                    break;
                case 'xr':
                    $roman = true;
                    break;
                case 'xh':
                    $hebrewNum = true;
                    break;
                case 'xg':
                    $usedMonth = true;
                    $s .= $this->getMonthNameGen( substr( $ts, 4, 2 ) );
                    break;
                case 'xjx':
                    $usedHebrewMonth = true;
                    if ( !$hebrew ) {
                        $hebrew = self::tsToHebrew( $ts );
                    }
                    $s .= $this->getHebrewCalendarMonthNameGen( $hebrew[1] );
                    break;
                case 'd':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    $num = substr( $ts, 6, 2 );
                    break;
                case 'D':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    $s .= $this->getWeekdayAbbreviation(
                        self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'w' ) + 1
                    );
                    break;
                case 'j':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    $num = intval( substr( $ts, 6, 2 ) );
                    break;
                case 'xij':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    if ( !$iranian ) {
                        $iranian = self::tsToIranian( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $iranian[2];
                    break;
                case 'xmj':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    if ( !$hijri ) {
                        $hijri = self::tsToHijri( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $hijri[2];
                    break;
                case 'xjj':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    if ( !$hebrew ) {
                        $hebrew = self::tsToHebrew( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $hebrew[2];
                    break;
                case 'l':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    $s .= $this->getWeekdayName(
                        self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'w' ) + 1
                    );
                    break;
                case 'F':
                    $usedMonth = true;
                    $s .= $this->getMonthName( substr( $ts, 4, 2 ) );
                    break;
                case 'xiF':
                    $usedIranianMonth = true;
                    if ( !$iranian ) {
                        $iranian = self::tsToIranian( $ts );
                    }
                    $s .= $this->getIranianCalendarMonthName( $iranian[1] );
                    break;
                case 'xmF':
                    $usedHijriMonth = true;
                    if ( !$hijri ) {
                        $hijri = self::tsToHijri( $ts );
                    }
                    $s .= $this->getHijriCalendarMonthName( $hijri[1] );
                    break;
                case 'xjF':
                    $usedHebrewMonth = true;
                    if ( !$hebrew ) {
                        $hebrew = self::tsToHebrew( $ts );
                    }
                    $s .= $this->getHebrewCalendarMonthName( $hebrew[1] );
                    break;
                case 'm':
                    $usedMonth = true;
                    $num = substr( $ts, 4, 2 );
                    break;
                case 'M':
                    $usedMonth = true;
                    $s .= $this->getMonthAbbreviation( substr( $ts, 4, 2 ) );
                    break;
                case 'n':
                    $usedMonth = true;
                    $num = intval( substr( $ts, 4, 2 ) );
                    break;
                case 'xin':
                    $usedIranianMonth = true;
                    if ( !$iranian ) {
                        $iranian = self::tsToIranian( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $iranian[1];
                    break;
                case 'xmn':
                    $usedHijriMonth = true;
                    if ( !$hijri ) {
                        $hijri = self::tsToHijri( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $hijri[1];
                    break;
                case 'xjn':
                    $usedHebrewMonth = true;
                    if ( !$hebrew ) {
                        $hebrew = self::tsToHebrew( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $hebrew[1];
                    break;
                case 'xjt':
                    $usedHebrewMonth = true;
                    if ( !$hebrew ) {
                        $hebrew = self::tsToHebrew( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $hebrew[3];
                    break;
                case 'Y':
                    $usedYear = true;
                    $num = substr( $ts, 0, 4 );
                    break;
                case 'xiY':
                    $usedIranianYear = true;
                    if ( !$iranian ) {
                        $iranian = self::tsToIranian( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $iranian[0];
                    break;
                case 'xmY':
                    $usedHijriYear = true;
                    if ( !$hijri ) {
                        $hijri = self::tsToHijri( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $hijri[0];
                    break;
                case 'xjY':
                    $usedHebrewYear = true;
                    if ( !$hebrew ) {
                        $hebrew = self::tsToHebrew( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $hebrew[0];
                    break;
                case 'xkY':
                    $usedYear = true;
                    if ( !$thai ) {
                        $thai = self::tsToYear( $ts, 'thai' );
                    }
                    $num = $thai[0];
                    break;
                case 'xoY':
                    $usedYear = true;
                    if ( !$minguo ) {
                        $minguo = self::tsToYear( $ts, 'minguo' );
                    }
                    $num = $minguo[0];
                    break;
                case 'xtY':
                    $usedTennoYear = true;
                    if ( !$tenno ) {
                        $tenno = self::tsToYear( $ts, 'tenno' );
                    }
                    $num = $tenno[0];
                    break;
                case 'y':
                    $usedYear = true;
                    $num = substr( $ts, 2, 2 );
                    break;
                case 'xiy':
                    $usedIranianYear = true;
                    if ( !$iranian ) {
                        $iranian = self::tsToIranian( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = substr( $iranian[0], -2 );
                    break;
                case 'xit':
                    $usedIranianYear = true;
                    if ( !$iranian ) {
                        $iranian = self::tsToIranian( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = self::$IRANIAN_DAYS[$iranian[1] - 1];
                    break;
                case 'xiz':
                    $usedIranianYear = true;
                    if ( !$iranian ) {
                        $iranian = self::tsToIranian( $ts );
                    }
                    $num = $iranian[3];
                    break;
                case 'a':
                    $usedAMPM = true;
                    $s .= intval( substr( $ts, 8, 2 ) ) < 12 ? 'am' : 'pm';
                    break;
                case 'A':
                    $usedAMPM = true;
                    $s .= intval( substr( $ts, 8, 2 ) ) < 12 ? 'AM' : 'PM';
                    break;
                case 'g':
                    $usedHour = true;
                    $h = substr( $ts, 8, 2 );
                    $num = $h % 12 ?: 12;
                    break;
                case 'G':
                    $usedHour = true;
                    $num = intval( substr( $ts, 8, 2 ) );
                    break;
                case 'h':
                    $usedHour = true;
                    $h = substr( $ts, 8, 2 );
                    $num = sprintf( '%02d', $h % 12 ?: 12 );
                    break;
                case 'H':
                    $usedHour = true;
                    $num = substr( $ts, 8, 2 );
                    break;
                case 'i':
                    $usedMinute = true;
                    $num = substr( $ts, 10, 2 );
                    break;
                case 's':
                    $usedSecond = true;
                    $num = substr( $ts, 12, 2 );
                    break;
                case 'c':
                case 'r':
                    $usedSecond = true;
                    // fall through
                case 'e':
                case 'O':
                case 'P':
                case 'T':
                    $s .= self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code );
                    break;
                case 'w':
                case 'N':
                case 'z':
                    $usedDay = true;
                    $num = self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code );
                    break;
                case 'W':
                    $usedWeek = true;
                    $num = self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code );
                    break;
                case 't':
                    $usedMonth = true;
                    $num = self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code );
                    break;
                case 'L':
                    $usedIsLeapYear = true;
                    $num = self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code );
                    break;
                case 'o':
                    $usedISOYear = true;
                    $num = self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code );
                    break;
                case 'U':
                    $usedSecond = true;
                    // fall through
                case 'I':
                case 'Z':
                    $num = self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, $code );
                    break;
                case '\\':
                    # Backslash escaping
                    if ( $p < $formatLength - 1 ) {
                        $s .= $format[++$p];
                    } else {
                        $s .= '\\';
                    }
                    break;
                case '"':
                    # Quoted literal
                    if ( $p < $formatLength - 1 ) {
                        $endQuote = strpos( $format, '"', $p + 1 );
                        if ( $endQuote === false ) {
                            # No terminating quote, assume literal "
                            $s .= '"';
                        } else {
                            $s .= substr( $format, $p + 1, $endQuote - $p - 1 );
                            $p = $endQuote;
                        }
                    } else {
                        # Quote at end of string, assume literal "
                        $s .= '"';
                    }
                    break;
                default:
                    $s .= $format[$p];
            }
            if ( $num !== false ) {
                if ( $rawToggle || $raw ) {
                    $s .= $num;
                    $raw = false;
                } elseif ( $roman ) {
                    $s .= self::romanNumeral( $num );
                    $roman = false;
                } elseif ( $hebrewNum ) {
                    $s .= self::hebrewNumeral( $num );
                    $hebrewNum = false;
                } else {
                    $s .= $this->formatNum( $num, true );
                }
            }
        }

        if ( $ttl === 'unused' ) {
            // No need to calculate the TTL, the caller wont use it anyway.
        } elseif ( $usedSecond ) {
            $ttl = 1;
        } elseif ( $usedMinute ) {
            $ttl = 60 - substr( $ts, 12, 2 );
        } elseif ( $usedHour ) {
            $ttl = 3600 - substr( $ts, 10, 2 ) * 60 - substr( $ts, 12, 2 );
        } elseif ( $usedAMPM ) {
            $ttl = 43200 - ( substr( $ts, 8, 2 ) % 12 ) * 3600 -
                substr( $ts, 10, 2 ) * 60 - substr( $ts, 12, 2 );
        } elseif (
            $usedDay ||
            $usedHebrewMonth ||
            $usedIranianMonth ||
            $usedHijriMonth ||
            $usedHebrewYear ||
            $usedIranianYear ||
            $usedHijriYear ||
            $usedTennoYear
        ) {
            // @todo Someone who understands the non-Gregorian calendars
            // should write proper logic for them so that they don't need purged every day.
            $ttl = 86400 - substr( $ts, 8, 2 ) * 3600 -
                substr( $ts, 10, 2 ) * 60 - substr( $ts, 12, 2 );
        } else {
            $possibleTtls = [];
            $timeRemainingInDay = 86400 - substr( $ts, 8, 2 ) * 3600 -
                substr( $ts, 10, 2 ) * 60 - substr( $ts, 12, 2 );
            if ( $usedWeek ) {
                $possibleTtls[] =
                    ( 7 - self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'N' ) ) * 86400 +
                    $timeRemainingInDay;
            } elseif ( $usedISOYear ) {
                // December 28th falls on the last ISO week of the year, every year.
                // The last ISO week of a year can be 52 or 53.
                $lastWeekOfISOYear = DateTime::createFromFormat(
                    'Ymd',
                    substr( $ts, 0, 4 ) . '1228',
                    $zone ?: new DateTimeZone( 'UTC' )
                )->format( 'W' );
                $currentISOWeek = self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'W' );
                $weeksRemaining = $lastWeekOfISOYear - $currentISOWeek;
                $timeRemainingInWeek =
                    ( 7 - self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'N' ) ) * 86400
                    + $timeRemainingInDay;
                $possibleTtls[] = $weeksRemaining * 604800 + $timeRemainingInWeek;
            }

            if ( $usedMonth ) {
                $possibleTtls[] =
                    ( self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 't' ) -
                        substr( $ts, 6, 2 ) ) * 86400
                    + $timeRemainingInDay;
            } elseif ( $usedYear ) {
                $possibleTtls[] =
                    ( self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'L' ) + 364 -
                        self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'z' ) ) * 86400
                    + $timeRemainingInDay;
            } elseif ( $usedIsLeapYear ) {
                $year = substr( $ts, 0, 4 );
                $timeRemainingInYear =
                    ( self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'L' ) + 364 -
                        self::dateTimeObjFormat( $dateTimeObj, $ts, $zone, 'z' ) ) * 86400
                    + $timeRemainingInDay;
                $mod = $year % 4;
                if ( $mod || ( !( $year % 100 ) && $year % 400 ) ) {
                    // this isn't a leap year. see when the next one starts
                    $nextCandidate = $year - $mod + 4;
                    if ( $nextCandidate % 100 || !( $nextCandidate % 400 ) ) {
                        $possibleTtls[] = ( $nextCandidate - $year - 1 ) * 365 * 86400 +
                            $timeRemainingInYear;
                    } else {
                        $possibleTtls[] = ( $nextCandidate - $year + 3 ) * 365 * 86400 +
                            $timeRemainingInYear;
                    }
                } else {
                    // this is a leap year, so the next year isn't
                    $possibleTtls[] = $timeRemainingInYear;
                }
            }

            if ( $possibleTtls ) {
                $ttl = min( $possibleTtls );
            }
        }

        return $s;
    }

    private static $GREG_DAYS = [ 31, 28, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31, 31, 30, 31, 30, 31 ];
    private static $IRANIAN_DAYS = [ 31, 31, 31, 31, 31, 31, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30, 29 ];

    /**
     * Algorithm by Roozbeh Pournader and Mohammad Toossi to convert
     * Gregorian dates to Iranian dates. Originally written in C, it
     * is released under the terms of GNU Lesser General Public
     * License. Conversion to PHP was performed by Niklas Laxström.
     *
     * Link: http://www.farsiweb.info/jalali/jalali.c
     *
     * @param string $ts
     *
     * @return int[]
     */
    private static function tsToIranian( $ts ) {
        $gy = substr( $ts, 0, 4 ) - 1600;
        $gm = substr( $ts, 4, 2 ) - 1;
        $gd = substr( $ts, 6, 2 ) - 1;

        # Days passed from the beginning (including leap years)
        $gDayNo = 365 * $gy
            + floor( ( $gy + 3 ) / 4 )
            - floor( ( $gy + 99 ) / 100 )
            + floor( ( $gy + 399 ) / 400 );

        // Add days of the past months of this year
        for ( $i = 0; $i < $gm; $i++ ) {
            $gDayNo += self::$GREG_DAYS[$i];
        }

        // Leap years
        if ( $gm > 1 && ( ( $gy % 4 === 0 && $gy % 100 !== 0 || ( $gy % 400 == 0 ) ) ) ) {
            $gDayNo++;
        }

        // Days passed in current month
        $gDayNo += (int)$gd;

        $jDayNo = $gDayNo - 79;

        $jNp = floor( $jDayNo / 12053 );
        $jDayNo %= 12053;

        $jy = 979 + 33 * $jNp + 4 * floor( $jDayNo / 1461 );
        $jDayNo %= 1461;

        if ( $jDayNo >= 366 ) {
            $jy += floor( ( $jDayNo - 1 ) / 365 );
            $jDayNo = floor( ( $jDayNo - 1 ) % 365 );
        }

        $jz = $jDayNo;

        for ( $i = 0; $i < 11 && $jDayNo >= self::$IRANIAN_DAYS[$i]; $i++ ) {
            $jDayNo -= self::$IRANIAN_DAYS[$i];
        }

        $jm = $i + 1;
        $jd = $jDayNo + 1;

        return [ $jy, $jm, $jd, $jz ];
    }

    /**
     * Converting Gregorian dates to Hijri dates.
     *
     * Based on a PHP-Nuke block by Sharjeel which is released under GNU/GPL license
     *
     * @see https://phpnuke.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=8234&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0
     *
     * @param string $ts
     *
     * @return int[]
     */
    private static function tsToHijri( $ts ) {
        $year = substr( $ts, 0, 4 );
        $month = substr( $ts, 4, 2 );
        $day = substr( $ts, 6, 2 );

        $zyr = $year;
        $zd = $day;
        $zm = $month;
        $zy = $zyr;

        if (
            ( $zy > 1582 ) || ( ( $zy == 1582 ) && ( $zm > 10 ) ) ||
            ( ( $zy == 1582 ) && ( $zm == 10 ) && ( $zd > 14 ) )
        ) {
            $zjd = (int)( ( 1461 * ( $zy + 4800 + (int)( ( $zm - 14 ) / 12 ) ) ) / 4 ) +
                    (int)( ( 367 * ( $zm - 2 - 12 * ( (int)( ( $zm - 14 ) / 12 ) ) ) ) / 12 ) -
                    (int)( ( 3 * (int)( ( ( $zy + 4900 + (int)( ( $zm - 14 ) / 12 ) ) / 100 ) ) ) / 4 ) +
                    $zd - 32075;
        } else {
            $zjd = 367 * $zy - (int)( ( 7 * ( $zy + 5001 + (int)( ( $zm - 9 ) / 7 ) ) ) / 4 ) +
                                (int)( ( 275 * $zm ) / 9 ) + $zd + 1729777;
        }

        $zl = $zjd - 1948440 + 10632;
        $zn = (int)( ( $zl - 1 ) / 10631 );
        $zl = $zl - 10631 * $zn + 354;
        $zj = ( (int)( ( 10985 - $zl ) / 5316 ) ) * ( (int)( ( 50 * $zl ) / 17719 ) ) +
            ( (int)( $zl / 5670 ) ) * ( (int)( ( 43 * $zl ) / 15238 ) );
        $zl = $zl - ( (int)( ( 30 - $zj ) / 15 ) ) * ( (int)( ( 17719 * $zj ) / 50 ) ) -
            ( (int)( $zj / 16 ) ) * ( (int)( ( 15238 * $zj ) / 43 ) ) + 29;
        $zm = (int)( ( 24 * $zl ) / 709 );
        $zd = $zl - (int)( ( 709 * $zm ) / 24 );
        $zy = 30 * $zn + $zj - 30;

        return [ $zy, $zm, $zd ];
    }

    /**
     * Converting Gregorian dates to Hebrew dates.
     *
     * Based on a JavaScript code by Abu Mami and Yisrael Hersch
     * (abu-mami@kaluach.net, http://www.kaluach.net), who permitted
     * to translate the relevant functions into PHP and release them under
     * GNU GPL.
     *
     * The months are counted from Tishrei = 1. In a leap year, Adar I is 13
     * and Adar II is 14. In a non-leap year, Adar is 6.
     *
     * @param string $ts
     *
     * @return int[]
     */
    private static function tsToHebrew( $ts ) {
        # Parse date
        $year = substr( $ts, 0, 4 );
        $month = substr( $ts, 4, 2 );
        $day = substr( $ts, 6, 2 );

        # Calculate Hebrew year
        $hebrewYear = $year + 3760;

        # Month number when September = 1, August = 12
        $month += 4;
        if ( $month > 12 ) {
            # Next year
            $month -= 12;
            $year++;
            $hebrewYear++;
        }

        # Calculate day of year from 1 September
        $dayOfYear = $day;
        for ( $i = 1; $i < $month; $i++ ) {
            if ( $i == 6 ) {
                # February
                $dayOfYear += 28;
                # Check if the year is leap
                if ( $year % 400 == 0 || ( $year % 4 == 0 && $year % 100 > 0 ) ) {
                    $dayOfYear++;
                }
            } elseif ( $i == 8 || $i == 10 || $i == 1 || $i == 3 ) {
                $dayOfYear += 30;
            } else {
                $dayOfYear += 31;
            }
        }

        # Calculate the start of the Hebrew year
        $start = self::hebrewYearStart( $hebrewYear );

        # Calculate next year's start
        if ( $dayOfYear <= $start ) {
            # Day is before the start of the year - it is the previous year
            # Next year's start
            $nextStart = $start;
            # Previous year
            $year--;
            $hebrewYear--;
            # Add days since previous year's 1 September
            $dayOfYear += 365;
            if ( ( $year % 400 == 0 ) || ( $year % 100 != 0 && $year % 4 == 0 ) ) {
                # Leap year
                $dayOfYear++;
            }
            # Start of the new (previous) year
            $start = self::hebrewYearStart( $hebrewYear );
        } else {
            # Next year's start
            $nextStart = self::hebrewYearStart( $hebrewYear + 1 );
        }

        # Calculate Hebrew day of year
        $hebrewDayOfYear = $dayOfYear - $start;

        # Difference between year's days
        $diff = $nextStart - $start;
        # Add 12 (or 13 for leap years) days to ignore the difference between
        # Hebrew and Gregorian year (353 at least vs. 365/6) - now the
        # difference is only about the year type
        if ( ( $year % 400 == 0 ) || ( $year % 100 != 0 && $year % 4 == 0 ) ) {
            $diff += 13;
        } else {
            $diff += 12;
        }

        # Check the year pattern, and is leap year
        # 0 means an incomplete year, 1 means a regular year, 2 means a complete year
        # This is mod 30, to work on both leap years (which add 30 days of Adar I)
        # and non-leap years
        $yearPattern = $diff % 30;
        # Check if leap year
        $isLeap = $diff >= 30;

        # Calculate day in the month from number of day in the Hebrew year
        # Don't check Adar - if the day is not in Adar, we will stop before;
        # if it is in Adar, we will use it to check if it is Adar I or Adar II
        $hebrewDay = $hebrewDayOfYear;
        $hebrewMonth = 1;
        $days = 0;
        while ( $hebrewMonth <= 12 ) {
            # Calculate days in this month
            if ( $isLeap && $hebrewMonth == 6 ) {
                # Leap year - has Adar I, with 30 days, and Adar II, with 29 days
                $days = 30;
                if ( $hebrewDay <= $days ) {
                    # Day in Adar I
                    $hebrewMonth = 13;
                } else {
                    # Subtract the days of Adar I
                    $hebrewDay -= $days;
                    # Try Adar II
                    $days = 29;
                    if ( $hebrewDay <= $days ) {
                        # Day in Adar II
                        $hebrewMonth = 14;
                    }
                }
            } elseif ( $hebrewMonth == 2 && $yearPattern == 2 ) {
                # Cheshvan in a complete year (otherwise as the rule below)
                $days = 30;
            } elseif ( $hebrewMonth == 3 && $yearPattern == 0 ) {
                # Kislev in an incomplete year (otherwise as the rule below)
                $days = 29;
            } else {
                # Odd months have 30 days, even have 29
                $days = 30 - ( $hebrewMonth - 1 ) % 2;
            }
            if ( $hebrewDay <= $days ) {
                # In the current month
                break;
            } else {
                # Subtract the days of the current month
                $hebrewDay -= $days;
                # Try in the next month
                $hebrewMonth++;
            }
        }

        return [ $hebrewYear, $hebrewMonth, $hebrewDay, $days ];
    }

    /**
     * This calculates the Hebrew year start, as days since 1 September.
     * Based on Carl Friedrich Gauss algorithm for finding Easter date.
     * Used for Hebrew date.
     *
     * @param int $year
     *
     * @return string
     */
    private static function hebrewYearStart( $year ) {
        $a = intval( ( 12 * ( $year - 1 ) + 17 ) % 19 );
        $b = intval( ( $year - 1 ) % 4 );
        $m = 32.044093161144 + 1.5542417966212 * $a + $b / 4.0 - 0.0031777940220923 * ( $year - 1 );
        if ( $m < 0 ) {
            $m--;
        }
        $Mar = intval( $m );
        if ( $m < 0 ) {
            $m++;
        }
        $m -= $Mar;

        $c = intval( ( $Mar + 3 * ( $year - 1 ) + 5 * $b + 5 ) % 7 );
        if ( $c == 0 && $a > 11 && $m >= 0.89772376543210 ) {
            $Mar++;
        } elseif ( $c == 1 && $a > 6 && $m >= 0.63287037037037 ) {
            $Mar += 2;
        } elseif ( $c == 2 || $c == 4 || $c == 6 ) {
            $Mar++;
        }

        $Mar += intval( ( $year - 3761 ) / 100 ) - intval( ( $year - 3761 ) / 400 ) - 24;
        return $Mar;
    }

    /**
     * Algorithm to convert Gregorian dates to Thai solar dates,
     * Minguo dates or Minguo dates.
     *
     * Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_solar_calendar
     *       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minguo_calendar
     *       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_era_name
     *
     * @param string $ts 14-character timestamp
     * @param string $cName Calender name
     * @return array Converted year, month, day
     */
    private static function tsToYear( $ts, $cName ) {
        $gy = substr( $ts, 0, 4 );
        $gm = substr( $ts, 4, 2 );
        $gd = substr( $ts, 6, 2 );

        if ( !strcmp( $cName, 'thai' ) ) {
            # Thai solar dates
            # Add 543 years to the Gregorian calendar
            # Months and days are identical
            $gy_offset = $gy + 543;
            # fix for dates between 1912 and 1941
            # https://en.wikipedia.org/?oldid=836596673#New_year
            if ( $gy >= 1912 && $gy <= 1940 ) {
                if ( $gm <= 3 ) {
                    $gy_offset--;
                }
                $gm = ( $gm - 3 ) % 12;
            }
        } elseif ( ( !strcmp( $cName, 'minguo' ) ) || !strcmp( $cName, 'juche' ) ) {
            # Minguo dates
            # Deduct 1911 years from the Gregorian calendar
            # Months and days are identical
            $gy_offset = $gy - 1911;
        } elseif ( !strcmp( $cName, 'tenno' ) ) {
            # Nengō dates up to Meiji period
            # Deduct years from the Gregorian calendar
            # depending on the nengo periods
            # Months and days are identical
            if ( ( $gy < 1912 )
                || ( ( $gy == 1912 ) && ( $gm < 7 ) )
                || ( ( $gy == 1912 ) && ( $gm == 7 ) && ( $gd < 31 ) )
            ) {
                # Meiji period
                $gy_gannen = $gy - 1868 + 1;
                $gy_offset = $gy_gannen;
                if ( $gy_gannen == 1 ) {
                    $gy_offset = '元';
                }
                $gy_offset = '明治' . $gy_offset;
            } elseif (
                ( ( $gy == 1912 ) && ( $gm == 7 ) && ( $gd == 31 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy == 1912 ) && ( $gm >= 8 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy > 1912 ) && ( $gy < 1926 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy == 1926 ) && ( $gm < 12 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy == 1926 ) && ( $gm == 12 ) && ( $gd < 26 ) )
            ) {
                # Taishō period
                $gy_gannen = $gy - 1912 + 1;
                $gy_offset = $gy_gannen;
                if ( $gy_gannen == 1 ) {
                    $gy_offset = '元';
                }
                $gy_offset = '大正' . $gy_offset;
            } elseif (
                ( ( $gy == 1926 ) && ( $gm == 12 ) && ( $gd >= 26 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy > 1926 ) && ( $gy < 1989 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy == 1989 ) && ( $gm == 1 ) && ( $gd < 8 ) )
            ) {
                # Shōwa period
                $gy_gannen = $gy - 1926 + 1;
                $gy_offset = $gy_gannen;
                if ( $gy_gannen == 1 ) {
                    $gy_offset = '元';
                }
                $gy_offset = '昭和' . $gy_offset;
            } elseif (
                ( ( $gy == 1989 ) && ( $gm == 1 ) && ( $gd >= 8 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy > 1989 ) && ( $gy < 2019 ) ) ||
                ( ( $gy == 2019 ) && ( $gm < 5 ) )
            ) {
                # Heisei period
                $gy_gannen = $gy - 1989 + 1;
                $gy_offset = $gy_gannen;
                if ( $gy_gannen == 1 ) {
                    $gy_offset = '元';
                }
                $gy_offset = '平成' . $gy_offset;
            } else {
                # Reiwa period
                $gy_gannen = $gy - 2019 + 1;
                $gy_offset = $gy_gannen;
                if ( $gy_gannen == 1 ) {
                    $gy_offset = '元';
                }
                $gy_offset = '令和' . $gy_offset;
            }
        } else {
            $gy_offset = $gy;
        }

        return [ $gy_offset, $gm, $gd ];
    }

    /**
     * Gets directionality of the first strongly directional codepoint, for embedBidi()
     *
     * This is the rule the BIDI algorithm uses to determine the directionality of
     * paragraphs ( https://www.unicode.org/reports/tr9/#The_Paragraph_Level ) and
     * FSI isolates ( https://www.unicode.org/reports/tr9/#Explicit_Directional_Isolates ).
     *
     * TODO: Does not handle BIDI control characters inside the text.
     * TODO: Does not handle unallocated characters.
     *
     * @param string $text Text to test
     * @return null|string Directionality ('ltr' or 'rtl') or null
     */
    private static function strongDirFromContent( $text = '' ) {
        if ( !preg_match( self::$strongDirRegex, $text, $matches ) ) {
            return null;
        }
        if ( $matches[1] === '' ) {
            return 'rtl';
        }
        return 'ltr';
    }

    /**
     * Roman number formatting up to 10000
     *
     * @param int $num
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public static function romanNumeral( $num ) {
        static $table = [
            [ '', 'I', 'II', 'III', 'IV', 'V', 'VI', 'VII', 'VIII', 'IX', 'X' ],
            [ '', 'X', 'XX', 'XXX', 'XL', 'L', 'LX', 'LXX', 'LXXX', 'XC', 'C' ],
            [ '', 'C', 'CC', 'CCC', 'CD', 'D', 'DC', 'DCC', 'DCCC', 'CM', 'M' ],
            [ '', 'M', 'MM', 'MMM', 'MMMM', 'MMMMM', 'MMMMMM', 'MMMMMMM',
                'MMMMMMMM', 'MMMMMMMMM', 'MMMMMMMMMM' ]
        ];

        $num = intval( $num );
        if ( $num > 10000 || $num <= 0 ) {
            return $num;
        }

        $s = '';
        for ( $pow10 = 1000, $i = 3; $i >= 0; $pow10 /= 10, $i-- ) {
            if ( $num >= $pow10 ) {
                $s .= $table[$i][(int)floor( $num / $pow10 )];
            }
            $num = $num % $pow10;
        }
        return $s;
    }

    /**
     * Hebrew Gematria number formatting up to 9999
     *
     * @param int $num
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public static function hebrewNumeral( $num ) {
        static $table = [
            [ '', 'א', 'ב', 'ג', 'ד', 'ה', 'ו', 'ז', 'ח', 'ט', 'י' ],
            [ '', 'י', 'כ', 'ל', 'מ', 'נ', 'ס', 'ע', 'פ', 'צ', 'ק' ],
            [ '',
                [ 'ק' ],
                [ 'ר' ],
                [ 'ש' ],
                [ 'ת' ],
                [ 'ת', 'ק' ],
                [ 'ת', 'ר' ],
                [ 'ת', 'ש' ],
                [ 'ת', 'ת' ],
                [ 'ת', 'ת', 'ק' ],
                [ 'ת', 'ת', 'ר' ],
            ],
            [ '', 'א', 'ב', 'ג', 'ד', 'ה', 'ו', 'ז', 'ח', 'ט', 'י' ]
        ];

        $num = intval( $num );
        if ( $num > 9999 || $num <= 0 ) {
            return $num;
        }

        // Round thousands have special notations
        if ( $num === 1000 ) {
            return "א' אלף";
        } elseif ( $num % 1000 === 0 ) {
            return $table[0][$num / 1000] . "' אלפים";
        }

        $letters = [];

        for ( $pow10 = 1000, $i = 3; $i >= 0; $pow10 /= 10, $i-- ) {
            if ( $num >= $pow10 ) {
                if ( $num === 15 || $num === 16 ) {
                    $letters[] = $table[0][9];
                    $letters[] = $table[0][$num - 9];
                    $num = 0;
                } else {
                    $letters = array_merge(
                        $letters,
                        (array)$table[$i][intval( $num / $pow10 )]
                    );

                    if ( $pow10 === 1000 ) {
                        $letters[] = "'";
                    }
                }
            }

            $num = $num % $pow10;
        }

        $preTransformLength = count( $letters );
        if ( $preTransformLength === 1 ) {
            // Add geresh (single quote) to one-letter numbers
            $letters[] = "'";
        } else {
            $lastIndex = $preTransformLength - 1;
            $letters[$lastIndex] = str_replace(
                [ 'כ', 'מ', 'נ', 'פ', 'צ' ],
                [ 'ך', 'ם', 'ן', 'ף', 'ץ' ],
                $letters[$lastIndex]
            );

            // Add gershayim (double quote) to multiple-letter numbers,
            // but exclude numbers with only one letter after the thousands
            // (1001-1009, 1020, 1030, 2001-2009, etc.)
            if ( $letters[1] === "'" && $preTransformLength === 3 ) {
                $letters[] = "'";
            } else {
                array_splice( $letters, -1, 0, '"' );
            }
        }

        return implode( $letters );
    }

    /**
     * Used by date() and time() to adjust the time output.
     *
     * @param string $ts The time in date('YmdHis') format
     * @param mixed $tz Adjust the time by this amount (default false, mean we
     *   get user timecorrection setting)
     * @return int
     */
    public function userAdjust( $ts, $tz = false ) {
        global $wgUser, $wgLocalTZoffset;

        if ( $tz === false ) {
            $tz = $wgUser->getOption( 'timecorrection' );
        }

        $data = explode( '|', $tz, 3 );

        if ( $data[0] == 'ZoneInfo' ) {
            try {
                $userTZ = new DateTimeZone( $data[2] );
                $date = new DateTime( $ts, new DateTimeZone( 'UTC' ) );
                $date->setTimezone( $userTZ );
                return $date->format( 'YmdHis' );
            } catch ( Exception $e ) {
                // Unrecognized timezone, default to 'Offset' with the stored offset.
                $data[0] = 'Offset';
            }
        }

        if ( $data[0] == 'System' || $tz == '' ) {
            # Global offset in minutes.
            $minDiff = $wgLocalTZoffset;
        } elseif ( $data[0] == 'Offset' ) {
            $minDiff = intval( $data[1] );
        } else {
            $data = explode( ':', $tz );
            if ( count( $data ) == 2 ) {
                $data[0] = intval( $data[0] );
                $data[1] = intval( $data[1] );
                $minDiff = abs( $data[0] ) * 60 + $data[1];
                if ( $data[0] < 0 ) {
                    $minDiff = -$minDiff;
                }
            } else {
                $minDiff = intval( $data[0] ) * 60;
            }
        }

        # No difference ? Return time unchanged
        if ( $minDiff == 0 ) {
            return $ts;
        }

        Wikimedia\suppressWarnings(); // E_STRICT system time bitching
        # Generate an adjusted date; take advantage of the fact that mktime
        # will normalize out-of-range values so we don't have to split $minDiff
        # into hours and minutes.
        $t = mktime( (
            (int)substr( $ts, 8, 2 ) ), # Hours
            (int)substr( $ts, 10, 2 ) + $minDiff, # Minutes
            (int)substr( $ts, 12, 2 ), # Seconds
            (int)substr( $ts, 4, 2 ), # Month
            (int)substr( $ts, 6, 2 ), # Day
            (int)substr( $ts, 0, 4 ) ); # Year

        $date = date( 'YmdHis', $t );
        Wikimedia\restoreWarnings();

        return $date;
    }

    /**
     * This is meant to be used by time(), date(), and timeanddate() to get
     * the date preference they're supposed to use, it should be used in
     * all children.
     *
     *     function timeanddate([...], $format = true) {
     *       $datePreference = $this->dateFormat($format);
     *       [...]
     *     }
     *
     * @param int|string|bool $usePrefs If true, the user's preference is used
     *   if false, the site/language default is used
     *   if int/string, assumed to be a format.
     * @return string
     */
    public function dateFormat( $usePrefs = true ) {
        global $wgUser;

        if ( is_bool( $usePrefs ) ) {
            if ( $usePrefs ) {
                $datePreference = $wgUser->getDatePreference();
            } else {
                $datePreference = (string)User::getDefaultOption( 'date' );
            }
        } else {
            $datePreference = (string)$usePrefs;
        }

        // return int
        if ( $datePreference == '' ) {
            return 'default';
        }

        return $datePreference;
    }

    /**
     * Get a format string for a given type and preference
     * @param string $type May be 'date', 'time', 'both', or 'pretty'.
     * @param string $pref The format name as it appears in Messages*.php under
     *  $datePreferences.
     *
     * @since 1.22 New type 'pretty' that provides a more readable timestamp format
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function getDateFormatString( $type, $pref ) {
        $wasDefault = false;
        if ( $pref == 'default' ) {
            $wasDefault = true;
            $pref = $this->getDefaultDateFormat();
        }

        if ( !isset( $this->dateFormatStrings[$type][$pref] ) ) {
            $df = $this->localisationCache
                ->getSubitem( $this->mCode, 'dateFormats', "$pref $type" );

            if ( $type === 'pretty' && $df === null ) {
                $df = $this->getDateFormatString( 'date', $pref );
            }

            if ( !$wasDefault && $df === null ) {
                $pref = $this->getDefaultDateFormat();
                $df = $this->localisationCache
                    ->getSubitem( $this->mCode, 'dateFormats', "$pref $type" );
            }

            $this->dateFormatStrings[$type][$pref] = $df;
        }
        return $this->dateFormatStrings[$type][$pref];
    }

    /**
     * @param string $ts The time format which needs to be turned into a
     *   date('YmdHis') format with wfTimestamp(TS_MW,$ts)
     * @param bool $adj Whether to adjust the time output according to the
     *   user configured offset ($timecorrection)
     * @param mixed $format True to use user's date format preference
     * @param string|bool $timecorrection The time offset as returned by
     *   validateTimeZone() in Special:Preferences
     * @return string
     */
    public function date( $ts, $adj = false, $format = true, $timecorrection = false ) {
        $ts = wfTimestamp( TS_MW, $ts );
        if ( $adj ) {
            $ts = $this->userAdjust( $ts, $timecorrection );
        }
        $df = $this->getDateFormatString( 'date', $this->dateFormat( $format ) );
        return $this->sprintfDate( $df, $ts );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $ts The time format which needs to be turned into a
     *   date('YmdHis') format with wfTimestamp(TS_MW,$ts)
     * @param bool $adj Whether to adjust the time output according to the
     *   user configured offset ($timecorrection)
     * @param mixed $format True to use user's date format preference
     * @param string|bool $timecorrection The time offset as returned by
     *   validateTimeZone() in Special:Preferences
     * @return string
     */
    public function time( $ts, $adj = false, $format = true, $timecorrection = false ) {
        $ts = wfTimestamp( TS_MW, $ts );
        if ( $adj ) {
            $ts = $this->userAdjust( $ts, $timecorrection );
        }
        $df = $this->getDateFormatString( 'time', $this->dateFormat( $format ) );
        return $this->sprintfDate( $df, $ts );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $ts The time format which needs to be turned into a
     *   date('YmdHis') format with wfTimestamp(TS_MW,$ts)
     * @param bool $adj Whether to adjust the time output according to the
     *   user configured offset ($timecorrection)
     * @param mixed $format What format to return, if it's false output the
     *   default one (default true)
     * @param string|bool $timecorrection The time offset as returned by
     *   validateTimeZone() in Special:Preferences
     * @return string
     */
    public function timeanddate( $ts, $adj = false, $format = true, $timecorrection = false ) {
        $ts = wfTimestamp( TS_MW, $ts );
        if ( $adj ) {
            $ts = $this->userAdjust( $ts, $timecorrection );
        }
        $df = $this->getDateFormatString( 'both', $this->dateFormat( $format ) );
        return $this->sprintfDate( $df, $ts );
    }

    /**
     * Takes a number of seconds and turns it into a text using values such as hours and minutes.
     *
     * @since 1.20
     *
     * @param int $seconds The amount of seconds.
     * @param array $chosenIntervals The intervals to enable.
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function formatDuration( $seconds, array $chosenIntervals = [] ) {
        $intervals = $this->getDurationIntervals( $seconds, $chosenIntervals );

        $segments = [];

        foreach ( $intervals as $intervalName => $intervalValue ) {
            // Messages: duration-seconds, duration-minutes, duration-hours, duration-days, duration-weeks,
            // duration-years, duration-decades, duration-centuries, duration-millennia
            $message = wfMessage( 'duration-' . $intervalName )->numParams( $intervalValue );
            $segments[] = $message->inLanguage( $this )->escaped();
        }

        return $this->listToText( $segments );
    }

    /**
     * Takes a number of seconds and returns an array with a set of corresponding intervals.
     * For example 65 will be turned into [ minutes => 1, seconds => 5 ].
     *
     * @since 1.20
     *
     * @param int $seconds The amount of seconds.
     * @param array $chosenIntervals The intervals to enable.
     *
     * @return array
     */
    public function getDurationIntervals( $seconds, array $chosenIntervals = [] ) {
        if ( empty( $chosenIntervals ) ) {
            $chosenIntervals = [
                'millennia',
                'centuries',
                'decades',
                'years',
                'days',
                'hours',
                'minutes',
                'seconds'
            ];
        }

        $intervals = array_intersect_key( self::DURATION_INTERVALS, array_flip( $chosenIntervals ) );
        $sortedNames = array_keys( $intervals );
        $smallestInterval = array_pop( $sortedNames );

        $segments = [];

        foreach ( $intervals as $name => $length ) {
            $value = floor( $seconds / $length );

            if ( $value > 0 || ( $name == $smallestInterval && empty( $segments ) ) ) {
                $seconds -= $value * $length;
                $segments[$name] = $value;
            }
        }

        return $segments;
    }

    /**
     * Internal helper function for userDate(), userTime() and userTimeAndDate()
     *
     * @param string $type Can be 'date', 'time' or 'both'
     * @param string $ts The time format which needs to be turned into a
     *   date('YmdHis') format with wfTimestamp(TS_MW,$ts)
     * @param User $user User object used to get preferences for timezone and format
     * @param array $options Array, can contain the following keys:
     *   - 'timecorrection': time correction, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: don't use time correction
     *     - int: value of time correction in minutes
     *   - 'format': format to use, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: use default preference
     *     - string: format to use
     * @since 1.19
     * @return string
     */
    private function internalUserTimeAndDate( $type, $ts, User $user, array $options ) {
        $ts = wfTimestamp( TS_MW, $ts );
        $options += [ 'timecorrection' => true, 'format' => true ];
        if ( $options['timecorrection'] !== false ) {
            if ( $options['timecorrection'] === true ) {
                $offset = $user->getOption( 'timecorrection' );
            } else {
                $offset = $options['timecorrection'];
            }
            $ts = $this->userAdjust( $ts, $offset );
        }
        if ( $options['format'] === true ) {
            $format = $user->getDatePreference();
        } else {
            $format = $options['format'];
        }
        $df = $this->getDateFormatString( $type, $this->dateFormat( $format ) );
        return $this->sprintfDate( $df, $ts );
    }

    /**
     * Get the formatted date for the given timestamp and formatted for
     * the given user.
     *
     * @param mixed $ts Mixed: the time format which needs to be turned into a
     *   date('YmdHis') format with wfTimestamp(TS_MW,$ts)
     * @param User $user User object used to get preferences for timezone and format
     * @param array $options Array, can contain the following keys:
     *   - 'timecorrection': time correction, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: don't use time correction
     *     - int: value of time correction in minutes
     *   - 'format': format to use, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: use default preference
     *     - string: format to use
     * @since 1.19
     * @return string
     */
    public function userDate( $ts, User $user, array $options = [] ) {
        return $this->internalUserTimeAndDate( 'date', $ts, $user, $options );
    }

    /**
     * Get the formatted time for the given timestamp and formatted for
     * the given user.
     *
     * @param mixed $ts The time format which needs to be turned into a
     *   date('YmdHis') format with wfTimestamp(TS_MW,$ts)
     * @param User $user User object used to get preferences for timezone and format
     * @param array $options Array, can contain the following keys:
     *   - 'timecorrection': time correction, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: don't use time correction
     *     - int: value of time correction in minutes
     *   - 'format': format to use, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: use default preference
     *     - string: format to use
     * @since 1.19
     * @return string
     */
    public function userTime( $ts, User $user, array $options = [] ) {
        return $this->internalUserTimeAndDate( 'time', $ts, $user, $options );
    }

    /**
     * Get the formatted date and time for the given timestamp and formatted for
     * the given user.
     *
     * @param mixed $ts The time format which needs to be turned into a
     *   date('YmdHis') format with wfTimestamp(TS_MW,$ts)
     * @param User $user User object used to get preferences for timezone and format
     * @param array $options Array, can contain the following keys:
     *   - 'timecorrection': time correction, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: don't use time correction
     *     - int: value of time correction in minutes
     *   - 'format': format to use, can have the following values:
     *     - true: use user's preference
     *     - false: use default preference
     *     - string: format to use
     * @since 1.19
     * @return string
     */
    public function userTimeAndDate( $ts, User $user, array $options = [] ) {
        return $this->internalUserTimeAndDate( 'both', $ts, $user, $options );
    }

    /**
     * Get the timestamp in a human-friendly relative format, e.g., "3 days ago".
     *
     * Determine the difference between the timestamp and the current time, and
     * generate a readable timestamp by returning "<N> <units> ago", where the
     * largest possible unit is used.
     *
     * @since 1.26 (Prior to 1.26 method existed but was not meant to be used directly)
     *
     * @param MWTimestamp $time
     * @param MWTimestamp|null $relativeTo The base timestamp to compare to (defaults to now)
     * @param User|null $user User the timestamp is being generated for
     *  (or null to use main context's user)
     * @return string Formatted timestamp
     */
    public function getHumanTimestamp(
        MWTimestamp $time, MWTimestamp $relativeTo = null, User $user = null
    ) {
        if ( $relativeTo === null ) {
            $relativeTo = new MWTimestamp();
        }
        if ( $user === null ) {
            $user = RequestContext::getMain()->getUser();
        }

        // Adjust for the user's timezone.
        $offsetThis = $time->offsetForUser( $user );
        $offsetRel = $relativeTo->offsetForUser( $user );

        $ts = '';
        if ( $this->getHookRunner()->onGetHumanTimestamp( $ts, $time, $relativeTo, $user, $this ) ) {
            $ts = $this->getHumanTimestampInternal( $time, $relativeTo, $user );
        }

        // Reset the timezone on the objects.
        $time->timestamp->sub( $offsetThis );
        $relativeTo->timestamp->sub( $offsetRel );

        return $ts;
    }

    /**
     * Convert an MWTimestamp into a pretty human-readable timestamp using
     * the given user preferences and relative base time.
     *
     * @see Language::getHumanTimestamp
     * @param MWTimestamp $ts Timestamp to prettify
     * @param MWTimestamp $relativeTo Base timestamp
     * @param User $user User preferences to use
     * @return string Human timestamp
     * @since 1.26
     */
    private function getHumanTimestampInternal(
        MWTimestamp $ts, MWTimestamp $relativeTo, User $user
    ) {
        $diff = $ts->diff( $relativeTo );
        $diffDay = (bool)( (int)$ts->timestamp->format( 'w' ) -
            (int)$relativeTo->timestamp->format( 'w' ) );
        $days = $diff->days ?: (int)$diffDay;
        if ( $diff->invert || $days > 5
            && $ts->timestamp->format( 'Y' ) !== $relativeTo->timestamp->format( 'Y' )
        ) {
            // Timestamps are in different years: use full timestamp
            // Also do full timestamp for future dates
            /**
             * @todo FIXME: Add better handling of future timestamps.
             */
            $format = $this->getDateFormatString( 'both', $user->getDatePreference() ?: 'default' );
            $ts = $this->sprintfDate( $format, $ts->getTimestamp( TS_MW ) );
        } elseif ( $days > 5 ) {
            // Timestamps are in same year,  but more than 5 days ago: show day and month only.
            $format = $this->getDateFormatString( 'pretty', $user->getDatePreference() ?: 'default' );
            $ts = $this->sprintfDate( $format, $ts->getTimestamp( TS_MW ) );
        } elseif ( $days > 1 ) {
            // Timestamp within the past week: show the day of the week and time
            $format = $this->getDateFormatString( 'time', $user->getDatePreference() ?: 'default' );
            $weekday = self::WEEKDAY_MESSAGES[$ts->timestamp->format( 'w' )];
            // Messages:
            // sunday-at, monday-at, tuesday-at, wednesday-at, thursday-at, friday-at, saturday-at
            $ts = wfMessage( "$weekday-at" )
                ->inLanguage( $this )
                ->params( $this->sprintfDate( $format, $ts->getTimestamp( TS_MW ) ) )
                ->text();
        } elseif ( $days == 1 ) {
            // Timestamp was yesterday: say 'yesterday' and the time.
            $format = $this->getDateFormatString( 'time', $user->getDatePreference() ?: 'default' );
            $ts = wfMessage( 'yesterday-at' )
                ->inLanguage( $this )
                ->params( $this->sprintfDate( $format, $ts->getTimestamp( TS_MW ) ) )
                ->text();
        } elseif ( $diff->h > 1 || $diff->h == 1 && $diff->i > 30 ) {
            // Timestamp was today, but more than 90 minutes ago: say 'today' and the time.
            $format = $this->getDateFormatString( 'time', $user->getDatePreference() ?: 'default' );
            $ts = wfMessage( 'today-at' )
                ->inLanguage( $this )
                ->params( $this->sprintfDate( $format, $ts->getTimestamp( TS_MW ) ) )
                ->text();

        // From here on in, the timestamp was soon enough ago so that we can simply say
        // XX units ago, e.g., "2 hours ago" or "5 minutes ago"
        } elseif ( $diff->h == 1 ) {
            // Less than 90 minutes, but more than an hour ago.
            $ts = wfMessage( 'hours-ago' )->inLanguage( $this )->numParams( 1 )->text();
        } elseif ( $diff->i >= 1 ) {
            // A few minutes ago.
            $ts = wfMessage( 'minutes-ago' )->inLanguage( $this )->numParams( $diff->i )->text();
        } elseif ( $diff->s >= 30 ) {
            // Less than a minute, but more than 30 sec ago.
            $ts = wfMessage( 'seconds-ago' )->inLanguage( $this )->numParams( $diff->s )->text();
        } else {
            // Less than 30 seconds ago.
            $ts = wfMessage( 'just-now' )->text();
        }

        return $ts;
    }

    /**
     * @param string $key
     * @return string|null
     */
    public function getMessage( $key ) {
        return $this->localisationCache->getSubitem( $this->mCode, 'messages', $key );
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function getAllMessages() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'messages' );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $in
     * @param string $out
     * @param string $string
     * @return string
     */
    public function iconv( $in, $out, $string ) {
        # Even with //IGNORE iconv can whine about illegal characters in
        # *input* string. We just ignore those too.
        # REF: https://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=37166
        # REF: https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/T18885
        Wikimedia\suppressWarnings();
        $text = iconv( $in, $out . '//IGNORE', $string );
        Wikimedia\restoreWarnings();
        return $text;
    }

    /**
     * @param string $str
     * @return string The string with uppercase conversion applied to the first character
     */
    public function ucfirst( $str ) {
        $octetCode = ord( $str );
        // See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII#Printable_characters
        if ( $octetCode < 96 ) {
            // Assume this is an uppercase/uncased ASCII character
            return (string)$str;
        } elseif ( $octetCode < 128 ) {
            // Assume this is a lowercase/uncased ASCII character
            return ucfirst( $str );
        }

        $first = mb_substr( $str, 0, 1 );
        return ( strlen( $first ) !== 1 )
            // Assume this is a multibyte character and mb_internal_encoding() is appropriate
            ? $this->mbUpperChar( $first ) . mb_substr( $str, 1 )
            // Assume this is a non-multibyte character and LC_CASE is appropriate
            : ucfirst( $str );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $str
     * @param bool $first Whether to uppercase only the first character
     * @return string The string with uppercase conversion applied
     */
    public function uc( $str, $first = false ) {
        if ( $first ) {
            return $this->ucfirst( $str );
        } else {
            return $this->isMultibyte( $str ) ? mb_strtoupper( $str ) : strtoupper( $str );
        }
    }

    /**
     * Convert character to uppercase, allowing overrides of the default mb_upper
     * behaviour, which is buggy in many ways. Having a conversion table can be
     * useful during transitions between PHP versions where unicode changes happen.
     * This can make some resources unreachable on-wiki, see discussion at T219279.
     * Providing such a conversion table can allow to manage the transition period.
     *
     * @since 1.34
     *
     * @param string $char
     *
     * @return string
     */
    protected function mbUpperChar( $char ) {
        global $wgOverrideUcfirstCharacters;

        return $wgOverrideUcfirstCharacters[$char] ?? mb_strtoupper( $char );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $str
     * @return string The string with lowercase conversion applied to the first character
     */
    public function lcfirst( $str ) {
        $octetCode = ord( $str );
        // See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII#Printable_characters
        if ( $octetCode < 96 ) {
            // Assume this is an uppercase/uncased ASCII character
            return lcfirst( $str );
        } elseif ( $octetCode < 128 ) {
            // Assume this is a lowercase/uncased ASCII character
            return (string)$str;
        }

        return $this->isMultibyte( $str )
            // Assume this is a multibyte character and mb_internal_encoding() is appropriate
            ? mb_strtolower( mb_substr( $str, 0, 1 ) ) . mb_substr( $str, 1 )
            // Assume this is a non-multibyte character and LC_CASE is appropriate
            : lcfirst( $str );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $str
     * @param bool $first Whether to lowercase only the first character
     * @return string The string with lowercase conversion applied
     */
    public function lc( $str, $first = false ) {
        if ( $first ) {
            return $this->lcfirst( $str );
        } else {
            return $this->isMultibyte( $str ) ? mb_strtolower( $str ) : strtolower( $str );
        }
    }

    /**
     * @param string $str
     * @return bool
     */
    private function isMultibyte( $str ) {
        return strlen( $str ) !== mb_strlen( $str );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $str
     * @return mixed|string
     */
    public function ucwords( $str ) {
        if ( $this->isMultibyte( $str ) ) {
            $str = $this->lc( $str );

            // regexp to find first letter in each word (i.e. after each space)
            $replaceRegexp = "/^([a-z]|[\\xc0-\\xff][\\x80-\\xbf]*)| ([a-z]|[\\xc0-\\xff][\\x80-\\xbf]*)/";

            // function to use to capitalize a single char
            return preg_replace_callback(
                $replaceRegexp,
                function ( $matches ) {
                    return mb_strtoupper( $matches[0] );
                },
                $str
            );
        } else {
            return ucwords( strtolower( $str ) );
        }
    }

    /**
     * capitalize words at word breaks
     *
     * @param string $str
     * @return mixed
     */
    public function ucwordbreaks( $str ) {
        if ( $this->isMultibyte( $str ) ) {
            $str = $this->lc( $str );

            // since \b doesn't work for UTF-8, we explicitely define word break chars
            $breaks = "[ \-\(\)\}\{\.,\?!]";

            // find first letter after word break
            $replaceRegexp = "/^([a-z]|[\\xc0-\\xff][\\x80-\\xbf]*)|" .
                "$breaks([a-z]|[\\xc0-\\xff][\\x80-\\xbf]*)/";

            return preg_replace_callback(
                $replaceRegexp,
                function ( $matches ) {
                    return mb_strtoupper( $matches[0] );
                },
                $str
            );
        } else {
            return preg_replace_callback(
                '/\b([\w\x80-\xff]+)\b/',
                function ( $matches ) {
                    return $this->ucfirst( $matches[1] );
                },
                $str
            );
        }
    }

    /**
     * Return a case-folded representation of $s
     *
     * This is a representation such that caseFold($s1)==caseFold($s2) if $s1
     * and $s2 are the same except for the case of their characters. It is not
     * necessary for the value returned to make sense when displayed.
     *
     * Do *not* perform any other normalisation in this function. If a caller
     * uses this function when it should be using a more general normalisation
     * function, then fix the caller.
     *
     * @param string $s
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function caseFold( $s ) {
        return $this->uc( $s );
    }

    /**
     * TODO: $s is not always a string per T218883
     * @param string $s
     * @return string
     */
    public function checkTitleEncoding( $s ) {
        if ( is_array( $s ) ) {
            throw new MWException( 'Given array to checkTitleEncoding.' );
        }
        if ( StringUtils::isUtf8( $s ) ) {
            return $s;
        }

        return $this->iconv( $this->fallback8bitEncoding(), 'utf-8', $s );
    }

    /**
     * @return string
     */
    public function fallback8bitEncoding() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'fallback8bitEncoding' );
    }

    /**
     * Most writing systems use whitespace to break up words.
     * Some languages such as Chinese don't conventionally do this,
     * which requires special handling when breaking up words for
     * searching etc.
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public function hasWordBreaks() {
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * Some languages such as Chinese require word segmentation,
     * Specify such segmentation when overridden in derived class.
     *
     * @param string $string
     * @return string
     */
    public function segmentByWord( $string ) {
        return $string;
    }

    /**
     * Some languages have special punctuation need to be normalized.
     * Make such changes here.
     *
     * @param string $string
     * @return string
     */
    public function normalizeForSearch( $string ) {
        return self::convertDoubleWidth( $string );
    }

    /**
     * convert double-width roman characters to single-width.
     * range: ff00-ff5f ~= 0020-007f
     *
     * @param string $string
     *
     * @return string
     */
    protected static function convertDoubleWidth( $string ) {
        static $full = null;
        static $half = null;

        if ( $full === null ) {
            $fullWidth = "0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
            $halfWidth = "0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
            $full = str_split( $fullWidth, 3 );
            $half = str_split( $halfWidth );
        }

        $string = str_replace( $full, $half, $string );
        return $string;
    }

    /**
     * @param string $string
     * @param string $pattern
     * @return string
     */
    protected static function insertSpace( $string, $pattern ) {
        $string = preg_replace( $pattern, " $1 ", $string );
        $string = preg_replace( '/ +/', ' ', $string );
        return $string;
    }

    /**
     * @param string[] $termsArray
     * @return string[]
     */
    public function convertForSearchResult( $termsArray ) {
        # some languages, e.g. Chinese, need to do a conversion
        # in order for search results to be displayed correctly
        return $termsArray;
    }

    /**
     * Get the first character of a string.
     *
     * @param string $s
     * @return string
     */
    public function firstChar( $s ) {
        $firstChar = mb_substr( $s, 0, 1 );

        if ( $firstChar !== false ) {
            if ( strlen( $firstChar ) != 3 ) {
                return $firstChar;
            }

            // Break down Hangul syllables to grab the first jamo
            $code = mb_ord( $firstChar );
            if ( $code < 0xac00 || 0xd7a4 <= $code ) {
                return $firstChar;
            } elseif ( $code < 0xb098 ) {
                return "\u{3131}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xb2e4 ) {
                return "\u{3134}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xb77c ) {
                return "\u{3137}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xb9c8 ) {
                return "\u{3139}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xbc14 ) {
                return "\u{3141}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xc0ac ) {
                return "\u{3142}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xc544 ) {
                return "\u{3145}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xc790 ) {
                return "\u{3147}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xcc28 ) {
                return "\u{3148}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xce74 ) {
                return "\u{314A}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xd0c0 ) {
                return "\u{314B}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xd30c ) {
                return "\u{314C}";
            } elseif ( $code < 0xd558 ) {
                return "\u{314D}";
            } else {
                return "\u{314E}";
            }
        }

        return '';
    }

    /**
     * Convert a UTF-8 string to normal form C. In Malayalam and Arabic, this
     * also cleans up certain backwards-compatible sequences, converting them
     * to the modern Unicode equivalent.
     *
     * This is language-specific for performance reasons only.
     *
     * @param string $s
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function normalize( $s ) {
        global $wgAllUnicodeFixes, $IP;

        $s = UtfNormal\Validator::cleanUp( $s );
        if ( $wgAllUnicodeFixes ) {
            $s = $this->transformUsingPairFile( 'normalize-ar.php', $s, $IP );
            $s = $this->transformUsingPairFile( 'normalize-ml.php', $s, $IP );
        }

        return $s;
    }

    /**
     * Transform a string using serialized data stored in the given file (which
     * must be in the serialized subdirectory of $IP). The file contains pairs
     * mapping source characters to destination characters.
     *
     * The data is cached in process memory. This will go faster if you have the
     * FastStringSearch extension.
     *
     * @param string $file
     * @param string $string
     * @param string|null $basePath
     *
     * @throws MWException
     * @return string
     */
    protected function transformUsingPairFile( $file, $string, $basePath = null ) {
        if ( isset( $this->transformData[$file] ) ) {
            wfDeprecated(
                __METHOD__ . ' structure of $transformData is changed',
                '1.35'
            );
            return $this->transformData[$file]->replace( $string );
        }

        if ( $basePath === null ) {
            wfDeprecated( __METHOD__ . ' $basePath is required', '1.35' );
            global $IP;
            $basePath = $IP;
        }

        if (
            $basePath === null
            || $basePath === ''
            || !file_exists( "{$basePath}/languages/data/{$file}" )
        ) {
            return $string;
        }

        if ( !isset( $this->transformData[$basePath][$file] ) ) {
            $data = require "{$basePath}/languages/data/{$file}";
            $this->transformData[$basePath][$file] = new ReplacementArray( $data );
        }

        return $this->transformData[$basePath][$file]->replace( $string );
    }

    /**
     * For right-to-left language support
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public function isRTL() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'rtl' );
    }

    /**
     * Return the correct HTML 'dir' attribute value for this language.
     * @return string
     */
    public function getDir() {
        return $this->isRTL() ? 'rtl' : 'ltr';
    }

    /**
     * Return 'left' or 'right' as appropriate alignment for line-start
     * for this language's text direction.
     *
     * Should be equivalent to CSS3 'start' text-align value....
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function alignStart() {
        return $this->isRTL() ? 'right' : 'left';
    }

    /**
     * Return 'right' or 'left' as appropriate alignment for line-end
     * for this language's text direction.
     *
     * Should be equivalent to CSS3 'end' text-align value....
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function alignEnd() {
        return $this->isRTL() ? 'left' : 'right';
    }

    /**
     * A hidden direction mark (LRM or RLM), depending on the language direction.
     * Unlike getDirMark(), this function returns the character as an HTML entity.
     * This function should be used when the output is guaranteed to be HTML,
     * because it makes the output HTML source code more readable. When
     * the output is plain text or can be escaped, getDirMark() should be used.
     *
     * @param bool $opposite Get the direction mark opposite to your language
     * @return string
     * @since 1.20
     */
    public function getDirMarkEntity( $opposite = false ) {
        if ( $opposite ) {
            return $this->isRTL() ? '&lrm;' : '&rlm;';
        }
        return $this->isRTL() ? '&rlm;' : '&lrm;';
    }

    /**
     * A hidden direction mark (LRM or RLM), depending on the language direction.
     * This function produces them as invisible Unicode characters and
     * the output may be hard to read and debug, so it should only be used
     * when the output is plain text or can be escaped. When the output is
     * HTML, use getDirMarkEntity() instead.
     *
     * @param bool $opposite Get the direction mark opposite to your language
     * @return string
     */
    public function getDirMark( $opposite = false ) {
        $lrm = "\u{200E}"; # LEFT-TO-RIGHT MARK, commonly abbreviated LRM
        $rlm = "\u{200F}"; # RIGHT-TO-LEFT MARK, commonly abbreviated RLM
        if ( $opposite ) {
            return $this->isRTL() ? $lrm : $rlm;
        }
        return $this->isRTL() ? $rlm : $lrm;
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function capitalizeAllNouns() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'capitalizeAllNouns' );
    }

    /**
     * An arrow, depending on the language direction.
     *
     * @param string $direction The direction of the arrow: forwards (default),
     *   backwards, left, right, up, down.
     * @return string
     */
    public function getArrow( $direction = 'forwards' ) {
        switch ( $direction ) {
            case 'forwards':
                return $this->isRTL() ? '←' : '→';
            case 'backwards':
                return $this->isRTL() ? '→' : '←';
            case 'left':
                return '←';
            case 'right':
                return '→';
            case 'up':
                return '↑';
            case 'down':
                return '↓';
        }
    }

    /**
     * To allow "foo[[bar]]" to extend the link over the whole word "foobar"
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public function linkPrefixExtension() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'linkPrefixExtension' );
    }

    /**
     * Get all magic words from cache.
     * @return array
     */
    public function getMagicWords() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'magicWords' );
    }

    /**
     * Fill a MagicWord object with data from here
     *
     * @param MagicWord $mw
     */
    public function getMagic( $mw ) {
        $rawEntry = $this->mMagicExtensions[$mw->mId] ??
            $this->localisationCache->getSubitem( $this->mCode, 'magicWords', $mw->mId );

        if ( !is_array( $rawEntry ) ) {
            wfWarn( "\"$rawEntry\" is not a valid magic word for \"$mw->mId\"" );
        } else {
            $mw->mCaseSensitive = $rawEntry[0];
            $mw->mSynonyms = array_slice( $rawEntry, 1 );
        }
    }

    /**
     * Get special page names, as an associative array
     *   canonical name => array of valid names, including aliases
     * @return array
     */
    public function getSpecialPageAliases() {
        // Cache aliases because it may be slow to load them
        if ( $this->mExtendedSpecialPageAliases === null ) {
            // Initialise array
            $this->mExtendedSpecialPageAliases =
                $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'specialPageAliases' );
        }

        return $this->mExtendedSpecialPageAliases;
    }

    /**
     * Italic is unsuitable for some languages
     *
     * @param string $text The text to be emphasized.
     * @return string
     */
    public function emphasize( $text ) {
        return "<em>$text</em>";
    }

    /**
     * Normally we output all numbers in plain en_US style, that is
     * 293,291.235 for twohundredninetythreethousand-twohundredninetyone
     * point twohundredthirtyfive. However this is not suitable for all
     * languages, some such as Bengali (bn) want ২,৯৩,২৯১.২৩৫ and others such as
     * Icelandic just want to use commas instead of dots, and dots instead
     * of commas like "293.291,235".
     *
     * An example of this function being called:
     * <code>
     * wfMessage( 'message' )->numParams( $num )->text()
     * </code>
     *
     * See $separatorTransformTable on MessageIs.php for
     * the , => . and . => , implementation.
     *
     * @todo check if it's viable to use localeconv() for the decimal separator thing.
     * @param string|int|float $number Expected to be a pre-formatted (e.g. leading zeros, number
     *  of decimal places) numeric string. Any non-string will be cast to string.
     * @param bool $nocommafy Set to true for special numbers like dates
     * @return string
     */
    public function formatNum( $number, $nocommafy = false ) {
        global $wgTranslateNumerals;

        $number = (string)$number;
        if ( !$nocommafy ) {
            $number = $this->commafy( $number );
            $s = $this->separatorTransformTable();
            if ( $s ) {
                $number = strtr( $number, $s );
            }
        }

        if ( $wgTranslateNumerals ) {
            $s = $this->digitTransformTable();
            if ( $s ) {
                $number = strtr( $number, $s );
            }
        }

        return $number;
    }

    /**
     * Front-end for non-commafied formatNum
     *
     * @param string|int|float $number The string to be formatted, should be an integer
     *        or a floating point number.
     * @since 1.21
     * @return string
     */
    public function formatNumNoSeparators( $number ) {
        return $this->formatNum( $number, true );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $number
     * @return string
     */
    public function parseFormattedNumber( $number ) {
        $s = $this->digitTransformTable();
        if ( $s ) {
            // eliminate empty array values such as ''. (T66347)
            $s = array_filter( $s );
            $number = strtr( $number, array_flip( $s ) );
        }

        $s = $this->separatorTransformTable();
        if ( $s ) {
            // eliminate empty array values such as ''. (T66347)
            $s = array_filter( $s );
            $number = strtr( $number, array_flip( $s ) );
        }

        $number = strtr( $number, [ ',' => '' ] );
        return $number;
    }

    /**
     * Adds commas to a given number
     * @since 1.19
     * @param string|null $number Expected to be a numeric string without (thousand) group
     *  separators. Decimal seperator, if present, must be a dot. Any non-string will be cast to
     *  string.
     * @return string
     */
    public function commafy( $number ) {
        $digitGroupingPattern = $this->digitGroupingPattern();
        $minimumGroupingDigits = $this->minimumGroupingDigits();
        if ( $number === null ) {
            return '';
        }

        if ( !$digitGroupingPattern || $digitGroupingPattern === "###,###,###" ) {
            // Default grouping is at thousands, use the same for ###,###,### pattern too.
            // In some languages it's conventional not to insert a thousands separator
            // in numbers that are four digits long (1000-9999).
            if ( $minimumGroupingDigits ) {
                // Number of '#' characters after last comma in the grouping pattern.
                // The pattern is hardcoded here, but this would vary for different patterns.
                $primaryGroupingSize = 3;
                // Maximum length of a number to suppress digit grouping for.
                $maximumLength = $minimumGroupingDigits + $primaryGroupingSize - 1;
                if ( preg_match( '/^\-?\d{1,' . $maximumLength . '}(\.\d+)?$/', $number ) ) {
                    return $number;
                }
            }
            return strrev( (string)preg_replace( '/(\d{3})(?=\d)(?!\d*\.)/', '$1,', strrev( $number ) ) );
        } else {
            // Ref: http://cldr.unicode.org/translation/number-patterns
            $sign = "";
            if ( intval( $number ) < 0 ) {
                // For negative numbers apply the algorithm like positive number and add sign.
                $sign = "-";
                $number = substr( $number, 1 );
            }
            $integerPart = [];
            $decimalPart = [];
            $numMatches = preg_match_all( "/(#+)/", $digitGroupingPattern, $matches );
            preg_match( "/\d+/", $number, $integerPart );
            preg_match( "/\.\d*/", $number, $decimalPart );
            $groupedNumber = ( count( $decimalPart ) > 0 ) ? $decimalPart[0] : "";
            if ( $groupedNumber === $number ) {
                // the string does not have any number part. Eg: .12345
                return $sign . $groupedNumber;
            }
            $start = $end = ( $integerPart ) ? strlen( $integerPart[0] ) : 0;
            while ( $start > 0 ) {
                $match = $matches[0][$numMatches - 1];
                $matchLen = strlen( $match );
                $start = $end - $matchLen;
                if ( $start < 0 ) {
                    $start = 0;
                }
                $groupedNumber = substr( $number, $start, $end - $start ) . $groupedNumber;
                $end = $start;
                if ( $numMatches > 1 ) {
                    // use the last pattern for the rest of the number
                    $numMatches--;
                }
                if ( $start > 0 ) {
                    $groupedNumber = "," . $groupedNumber;
                }
            }
            return $sign . $groupedNumber;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @return string
     */
    public function digitGroupingPattern() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'digitGroupingPattern' );
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function digitTransformTable() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'digitTransformTable' );
    }

    /**
     * @return array
     */
    public function separatorTransformTable() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'separatorTransformTable' );
    }

    /**
     * @return int|null
     */
    public function minimumGroupingDigits() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'minimumGroupingDigits' );
    }

    /**
     * Take a list of strings and build a locale-friendly comma-separated
     * list, using the local comma-separator message.
     * The last two strings are chained with an "and".
     *
     * @param string[] $list
     * @return string
     */
    public function listToText( array $list ) {
        $itemCount = count( $list );
        if ( $itemCount < 1 ) {
            return '';
        }
        $text = array_pop( $list );
        if ( $itemCount > 1 ) {
            $and = $this->msg( 'and' )->escaped();
            $space = $this->msg( 'word-separator' )->escaped();
            $comma = '';
            if ( $itemCount > 2 ) {
                $comma = $this->msg( 'comma-separator' )->escaped();
            }
            $text = implode( $comma, $list ) . $and . $space . $text;
        }
        return $text;
    }

    /**
     * Take a list of strings and build a locale-friendly comma-separated
     * list, using the local comma-separator message.
     * @param string[] $list Array of strings to put in a comma list
     * @return string
     */
    public function commaList( array $list ) {
        return implode(
            wfMessage( 'comma-separator' )->inLanguage( $this )->escaped(),
            $list
        );
    }

    /**
     * Take a list of strings and build a locale-friendly semicolon-separated
     * list, using the local semicolon-separator message.
     * @param string[] $list Array of strings to put in a semicolon list
     * @return string
     */
    public function semicolonList( array $list ) {
        return implode(
            wfMessage( 'semicolon-separator' )->inLanguage( $this )->escaped(),
            $list
        );
    }

    /**
     * Same as commaList, but separate it with the pipe instead.
     * @param string[] $list Array of strings to put in a pipe list
     * @return string
     */
    public function pipeList( array $list ) {
        return implode(
            wfMessage( 'pipe-separator' )->inLanguage( $this )->escaped(),
            $list
        );
    }

    /**
     * Truncate a string to a specified length in bytes, appending an optional
     * string (e.g. for ellipsis)
     *
     * If $length is negative, the string will be truncated from the beginning
     *
     * @since 1.31
     *
     * @param string $string String to truncate
     * @param int $length Maximum length in bytes
     * @param string $ellipsis String to append to the end of truncated text
     * @param bool $adjustLength Subtract length of ellipsis from $length
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function truncateForDatabase( $string, $length, $ellipsis = '...', $adjustLength = true ) {
        return $this->truncateInternal(
            $string, $length, $ellipsis, $adjustLength, 'strlen', 'substr'
        );
    }

    /**
     * Truncate a string to a specified number of characters, appending an optional
     * string (e.g. for ellipsis).
     *
     * This provides multibyte version of truncateForDatabase() method of this class,
     * suitable for truncation based on number of characters, instead of number of bytes.
     *
     * If $length is negative, the string will be truncated from the beginning.
     *
     * @since 1.31
     *
     * @param string $string String to truncate
     * @param int $length Maximum number of characters
     * @param string $ellipsis String to append to the end of truncated text
     * @param bool $adjustLength Subtract length of ellipsis from $length
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function truncateForVisual( $string, $length, $ellipsis = '...', $adjustLength = true ) {
        // Passing encoding to mb_strlen and mb_substr is optional.
        // Encoding defaults to mb_internal_encoding(), which is set to UTF-8 in Setup.php, so
        // explicit specification of encoding is skipped.
        // Note: Both multibyte methods are callables invoked in truncateInternal.
        return $this->truncateInternal(
            $string, $length, $ellipsis, $adjustLength, 'mb_strlen', 'mb_substr'
        );
    }

    /**
     * Internal method used for truncation. This method abstracts text truncation into
     * one common method, allowing users to provide length measurement function and
     * function for finding substring.
     *
     * For usages, see truncateForDatabase and truncateForVisual.
     *
     * @param string $string String to truncate
     * @param int $length Maximum length of final text
     * @param string $ellipsis String to append to the end of truncated text
     * @param bool $adjustLength Subtract length of ellipsis from $length
     * @param callable $measureLength Callable function used for determining the length of text
     * @param callable $getSubstring Callable function used for getting the substrings
     *
     * @return string
     */
    private function truncateInternal(
        $string, $length, $ellipsis, $adjustLength, callable $measureLength, callable $getSubstring
    ) {
        # Check if there is no need to truncate
        if ( $measureLength( $string ) <= abs( $length ) ) {
            return $string; // no need to truncate
        }

        # Use the localized ellipsis character
        if ( $ellipsis == '...' ) {
            $ellipsis = wfMessage( 'ellipsis' )->inLanguage( $this )->escaped();
        }
        if ( $length == 0 ) {
            return $ellipsis; // convention
        }

        $stringOriginal = $string;
        # If ellipsis length is >= $length then we can't apply $adjustLength
        if ( $adjustLength && $measureLength( $ellipsis ) >= abs( $length ) ) {
            $string = $ellipsis; // this can be slightly unexpected
        # Otherwise, truncate and add ellipsis...
        } else {
            $ellipsisLength = $adjustLength ? $measureLength( $ellipsis ) : 0;
            if ( $length > 0 ) {
                $length -= $ellipsisLength;
                $string = $getSubstring( $string, 0, $length ); // xyz...
                $string = $this->removeBadCharLast( $string );
                $string = rtrim( $string ) . $ellipsis;
            } else {
                $length += $ellipsisLength;
                $string = $getSubstring( $string, $length ); // ...xyz
                $string = $this->removeBadCharFirst( $string );
                $string = $ellipsis . ltrim( $string );
            }
        }

        # Do not truncate if the ellipsis makes the string longer/equal (T24181).
        # This check is *not* redundant if $adjustLength, due to the single case where
        # LEN($ellipsis) > ABS($limit arg); $stringOriginal could be shorter than $string.
        if ( $measureLength( $string ) < $measureLength( $stringOriginal ) ) {
            return $string;
        } else {
            return $stringOriginal;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Remove bytes that represent an incomplete Unicode character
     * at the end of string (e.g. bytes of the char are missing)
     *
     * @param string $string
     * @return string
     */
    protected function removeBadCharLast( $string ) {
        if ( $string != '' ) {
            $char = ord( $string[strlen( $string ) - 1] );
            $m = [];
            if ( $char >= 0xc0 ) {
                # We got the first byte only of a multibyte char; remove it.
                $string = substr( $string, 0, -1 );
            } elseif ( $char >= 0x80 &&
                // Use the /s modifier (PCRE_DOTALL) so (.*) also matches newlines
                preg_match( '/^(.*)(?:[\xe0-\xef][\x80-\xbf]|' .
                    '[\xf0-\xf7][\x80-\xbf]{1,2})$/s', $string, $m )
            ) {
                # We chopped in the middle of a character; remove it
                $string = $m[1];
            }
        }
        return $string;
    }

    /**
     * Remove bytes that represent an incomplete Unicode character
     * at the start of string (e.g. bytes of the char are missing)
     *
     * @param string $string
     * @return string
     */
    protected function removeBadCharFirst( $string ) {
        if ( $string != '' ) {
            $char = ord( $string[0] );
            if ( $char >= 0x80 && $char < 0xc0 ) {
                # We chopped in the middle of a character; remove the whole thing
                $string = preg_replace( '/^[\x80-\xbf]+/', '', $string );
            }
        }
        return $string;
    }

    /**
     * Truncate a string of valid HTML to a specified length in bytes,
     * appending an optional string (e.g. for ellipses), and return valid HTML
     *
     * This is only intended for styled/linked text, such as HTML with
     * tags like <span> and <a>, were the tags are self-contained (valid HTML).
     * Also, this will not detect things like "display:none" CSS.
     *
     * Note: since 1.18 you do not need to leave extra room in $length for ellipses.
     *
     * @param string $text HTML string to truncate
     * @param int $length (zero/positive) Maximum length (including ellipses)
     * @param string $ellipsis String to append to the truncated text
     * @return string
     */
    public function truncateHtml( $text, $length, $ellipsis = '...' ) {
        # Use the localized ellipsis character
        if ( $ellipsis == '...' ) {
            $ellipsis = wfMessage( 'ellipsis' )->inLanguage( $this )->escaped();
        }
        # Check if there is clearly no need to truncate
        if ( $length <= 0 ) {
            return $ellipsis; // no text shown, nothing to format (convention)
        } elseif ( strlen( $text ) <= $length ) {
            return $text; // string short enough even *with* HTML (short-circuit)
        }

        $dispLen = 0; // innerHTML legth so far
        $testingEllipsis = false; // checking if ellipses will make string longer/equal?
        $tagType = 0; // 0-open, 1-close
        $bracketState = 0; // 1-tag start, 2-tag name, 0-neither
        $entityState = 0; // 0-not entity, 1-entity
        $tag = $ret = ''; // accumulated tag name, accumulated result string
        $openTags = []; // open tag stack
        $maybeState = null; // possible truncation state

        $textLen = strlen( $text );
        $neLength = max( 0, $length - strlen( $ellipsis ) ); // non-ellipsis len if truncated
        for ( $pos = 0; true; ++$pos ) {
            # Consider truncation once the display length has reached the maximim.
            # We check if $dispLen > 0 to grab tags for the $neLength = 0 case.
            # Check that we're not in the middle of a bracket/entity...
            if ( $dispLen && $dispLen >= $neLength && $bracketState == 0 && !$entityState ) {
                if ( !$testingEllipsis ) {
                    $testingEllipsis = true;
                    # Save where we are; we will truncate here unless there turn out to
                    # be so few remaining characters that truncation is not necessary.
                    if ( !$maybeState ) { // already saved? ($neLength = 0 case)
                        $maybeState = [ $ret, $openTags ]; // save state
                    }
                } elseif ( $dispLen > $length && $dispLen > strlen( $ellipsis ) ) {
                    # String in fact does need truncation, the truncation point was OK.
                    // @phan-suppress-next-line PhanTypeInvalidExpressionArrayDestructuring
                    list( $ret, $openTags ) = $maybeState; // reload state
                    $ret = $this->removeBadCharLast( $ret ); // multi-byte char fix
                    $ret .= $ellipsis; // add ellipsis
                    break;
                }
            }
            if ( $pos >= $textLen ) {
                break; // extra iteration just for above checks
            }

            # Read the next char...
            $ch = $text[$pos];
            $lastCh = $pos ? $text[$pos - 1] : '';
            $ret .= $ch; // add to result string
            if ( $ch == '<' ) {
                $this->truncate_endBracket( $tag, $tagType, $lastCh, $openTags ); // for bad HTML
                $entityState = 0; // for bad HTML
                $bracketState = 1; // tag started (checking for backslash)
            } elseif ( $ch == '>' ) {
                $this->truncate_endBracket( $tag, $tagType, $lastCh, $openTags );
                $entityState = 0; // for bad HTML
                $bracketState = 0; // out of brackets
            } elseif ( $bracketState == 1 ) {
                if ( $ch == '/' ) {
                    $tagType = 1; // close tag (e.g. "</span>")
                } else {
                    $tagType = 0; // open tag (e.g. "<span>")
                    $tag .= $ch;
                }
                $bracketState = 2; // building tag name
            } elseif ( $bracketState == 2 ) {
                if ( $ch != ' ' ) {
                    $tag .= $ch;
                } else {
                    // Name found (e.g. "<a href=..."), add on tag attributes...
                    $pos += $this->truncate_skip( $ret, $text, "<>", $pos + 1 );
                }
            } elseif ( $bracketState == 0 ) {
                if ( $entityState ) {
                    if ( $ch == ';' ) {
                        $entityState = 0;
                        $dispLen++; // entity is one displayed char
                    }
                } else {
                    if ( $neLength == 0 && !$maybeState ) {
                        // Save state without $ch. We want to *hit* the first
                        // display char (to get tags) but not *use* it if truncating.
                        $maybeState = [ substr( $ret, 0, -1 ), $openTags ];
                    }
                    if ( $ch == '&' ) {
                        $entityState = 1; // entity found, (e.g. "&#160;")
                    } else {
                        $dispLen++; // this char is displayed
                        // Add the next $max display text chars after this in one swoop...
                        $max = ( $testingEllipsis ? $length : $neLength ) - $dispLen;
                        $skipped = $this->truncate_skip( $ret, $text, "<>&", $pos + 1, $max );
                        $dispLen += $skipped;
                        $pos += $skipped;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        // Close the last tag if left unclosed by bad HTML
        $this->truncate_endBracket( $tag, $text[$textLen - 1], $tagType, $openTags );
        while ( count( $openTags ) > 0 ) {
            $ret .= '</' . array_pop( $openTags ) . '>'; // close open tags
        }
        return $ret;
    }

    /**
     * truncateHtml() helper function
     * like strcspn() but adds the skipped chars to $ret
     *
     * @param string &$ret
     * @param string $text
     * @param string $search
     * @param int $start
     * @param null|int $len
     * @return int
     */
    private function truncate_skip( &$ret, $text, $search, $start, $len = null ) {
        if ( $len === null ) {
            $len = -1; // -1 means "no limit" for strcspn
        } elseif ( $len < 0 ) {
            $len = 0; // sanity
        }
        $skipCount = 0;
        if ( $start < strlen( $text ) ) {
            $skipCount = strcspn( $text, $search, $start, $len );
            $ret .= substr( $text, $start, $skipCount );
        }
        return $skipCount;
    }

    /**
     * truncateHtml() helper function
     * (a) push or pop $tag from $openTags as needed
     * (b) clear $tag value
     * @param string &$tag Current HTML tag name we are looking at
     * @param int $tagType (0-open tag, 1-close tag)
     * @param string $lastCh Character before the '>' that ended this tag
     * @param array &$openTags Open tag stack (not accounting for $tag)
     */
    private function truncate_endBracket( &$tag, $tagType, $lastCh, &$openTags ) {
        $tag = ltrim( $tag );
        if ( $tag != '' ) {
            if ( $tagType == 0 && $lastCh != '/' ) {
                $openTags[] = $tag; // tag opened (didn't close itself)
            } elseif ( $tagType == 1 ) {
                if ( $openTags && $tag == $openTags[count( $openTags ) - 1] ) {
                    array_pop( $openTags ); // tag closed
                }
            }
            $tag = '';
        }
    }

    /**
     * Grammatical transformations, needed for inflected languages
     * Invoked by putting {{grammar:case|word}} in a message
     *
     * @param string $word
     * @param string $case
     * @return string
     */
    public function convertGrammar( $word, $case ) {
        global $wgGrammarForms;
        if ( isset( $wgGrammarForms[$this->getCode()][$case][$word] ) ) {
            return $wgGrammarForms[$this->getCode()][$case][$word];
        }

        $grammarTransformations = $this->getGrammarTransformations();

        if ( isset( $grammarTransformations[$case] ) ) {
            $forms = $grammarTransformations[$case];

            // Some names of grammar rules are aliases for other rules.
            // In such cases the value is a string rather than object,
            // so load the actual rules.
            if ( is_string( $forms ) ) {
                $forms = $grammarTransformations[$forms];
            }

            foreach ( array_values( $forms ) as $rule ) {
                $form = $rule[0];

                if ( $form === '@metadata' ) {
                    continue;
                }

                $replacement = $rule[1];

                $regex = '/' . addcslashes( $form, '/' ) . '/u';
                $patternMatches = preg_match( $regex, $word );

                if ( $patternMatches === false ) {
                    wfLogWarning(
                        'An error occurred while processing grammar. ' .
                        "Word: '$word'. Regex: /$form/."
                    );
                } elseif ( $patternMatches === 1 ) {
                    $word = preg_replace( $regex, $replacement, $word );

                    break;
                }
            }
        }

        return $word;
    }

    /**
     * Get the grammar forms for the content language
     * @return array Array of grammar forms
     * @since 1.20
     */
    public function getGrammarForms() {
        global $wgGrammarForms;
        if ( isset( $wgGrammarForms[$this->getCode()] )
            && is_array( $wgGrammarForms[$this->getCode()] )
        ) {
            return $wgGrammarForms[$this->getCode()];
        }

        return [];
    }

    /**
     * Get the grammar transformations data for the language.
     * Used like grammar forms, with {{GRAMMAR}} and cases,
     * but uses pairs of regexes and replacements instead of code.
     *
     * @return array[] Array of grammar transformations.
     * @throws MWException
     * @since 1.28
     */
    public function getGrammarTransformations() {
        if ( $this->grammarTransformCache !== null ) {
            return $this->grammarTransformCache;
        }

        $grammarDataFile = __DIR__ . "/data/grammarTransformations/{$this->getCode()}.json";

        $this->grammarTransformCache = is_readable( $grammarDataFile )
            ? FormatJson::decode( file_get_contents( $grammarDataFile ), true )
            : [];

        if ( $this->grammarTransformCache === null ) {
            throw new MWException( "Invalid grammar data for \"{$this->getCode()}\"." );
        }

        return $this->grammarTransformCache;
    }

    /**
     * Provides an alternative text depending on specified gender.
     * Usage {{gender:username|masculine|feminine|unknown}}.
     * username is optional, in which case the gender of current user is used,
     * but only in (some) interface messages; otherwise default gender is used.
     *
     * If no forms are given, an empty string is returned. If only one form is
     * given, it will be returned unconditionally. These details are implied by
     * the caller and cannot be overridden in subclasses.
     *
     * If three forms are given, the default is to use the third (unknown) form.
     * If fewer than three forms are given, the default is to use the first (masculine) form.
     * These details can be overridden in subclasses.
     *
     * @param string $gender
     * @param array $forms
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function gender( $gender, $forms ) {
        if ( !count( $forms ) ) {
            return '';
        }
        $forms = $this->preConvertPlural( $forms, 2 );
        if ( $gender === 'male' ) {
            return $forms[0];
        }
        if ( $gender === 'female' ) {
            return $forms[1];
        }
        return $forms[2] ?? $forms[0];
    }

    /**
     * Plural form transformations, needed for some languages.
     * For example, there are 3 form of plural in Russian and Polish,
     * depending on "count mod 10". See [[w:Plural]]
     * For English it is pretty simple.
     *
     * Invoked by putting {{plural:count|wordform1|wordform2}}
     * or {{plural:count|wordform1|wordform2|wordform3}}
     *
     * Example: {{plural:{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}}|article|articles}}
     *
     * @param int $count Non-localized number
     * @param array $forms Different plural forms
     * @return string Correct form of plural for $count in this language
     */
    public function convertPlural( $count, $forms ) {
        // Handle explicit n=pluralform cases
        $forms = $this->handleExplicitPluralForms( $count, $forms );
        if ( is_string( $forms ) ) {
            return $forms;
        }
        if ( !count( $forms ) ) {
            return '';
        }

        $pluralForm = $this->getPluralRuleIndexNumber( $count );
        $pluralForm = min( $pluralForm, count( $forms ) - 1 );
        return $forms[$pluralForm];
    }

    /**
     * Handles explicit plural forms for Language::convertPlural()
     *
     * In {{PLURAL:$1|0=nothing|one|many}}, 0=nothing will be returned if $1 equals zero.
     * If an explicitly defined plural form matches the $count, then
     * string value returned, otherwise array returned for further consideration
     * by CLDR rules or overridden convertPlural().
     *
     * @since 1.23
     *
     * @param int $count Non-localized number
     * @param array $forms Different plural forms
     *
     * @return array|string
     */
    protected function handleExplicitPluralForms( $count, array $forms ) {
        foreach ( $forms as $index => $form ) {
            if ( preg_match( '/\d+=/i', $form ) ) {
                $pos = strpos( $form, '=' );
                if ( substr( $form, 0, $pos ) === (string)$count ) {
                    return substr( $form, $pos + 1 );
                }
                unset( $forms[$index] );
            }
        }
        return array_values( $forms );
    }

    /**
     * Checks that convertPlural was given an array and pads it to requested
     * amount of forms by copying the last one.
     *
     * @param array $forms
     * @param int $count How many forms should there be at least
     * @return array Padded array of forms
     */
    protected function preConvertPlural( /* Array */ $forms, $count ) {
        return array_pad( $forms, $count, end( $forms ) );
    }

    /**
     * Wraps argument with unicode control characters for directionality safety
     *
     * This solves the problem where directionality-neutral characters at the edge of
     * the argument string get interpreted with the wrong directionality from the
     * enclosing context, giving renderings that look corrupted like "(Ben_(WMF".
     *
     * The wrapping is LRE...PDF or RLE...PDF, depending on the detected
     * directionality of the argument string, using the BIDI algorithm's own "First
     * strong directional codepoint" rule. Essentially, this works round the fact that
     * there is no embedding equivalent of U+2068 FSI (isolation with heuristic
     * direction inference). The latter is cleaner but still not widely supported.
     *
     * @param string $text Text to wrap
     * @return string Text, wrapped in LRE...PDF or RLE...PDF or nothing
     */
    public function embedBidi( $text = '' ) {
        $dir = self::strongDirFromContent( $text );
        if ( $dir === 'ltr' ) {
            // Wrap in LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING ... POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING
            return self::LRE . $text . self::PDF;
        }
        if ( $dir === 'rtl' ) {
            // Wrap in RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING ... POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING
            return self::RLE . $text . self::PDF;
        }
        // No strong directionality: do not wrap
        return $text;
    }

    /**
     * @todo Maybe translate block durations.  Note that this function is somewhat misnamed: it
     * deals with translating the *duration* ("1 week", "4 days", etc), not the expiry time
     * (which is an absolute timestamp). Please note: do NOT add this blindly, as it is used
     * on old expiry lengths recorded in log entries. You'd need to provide the start date to
     * match up with it.
     *
     * @param string $str The validated block duration in English
     * @param User|null $user User object to use timezone from or null for $wgUser
     * @param int $now Current timestamp, for formatting relative block durations
     * @return string Somehow translated block duration
     * @see LanguageFi.php for example implementation
     */
    public function translateBlockExpiry( $str, User $user = null, $now = 0 ) {
        $duration = SpecialBlock::getSuggestedDurations( $this );
        foreach ( $duration as $show => $value ) {
            if ( strcmp( $str, $value ) == 0 ) {
                return htmlspecialchars( trim( $show ) );
            }
        }

        if ( wfIsInfinity( $str ) ) {
            foreach ( $duration as $show => $value ) {
                if ( wfIsInfinity( $value ) ) {
                    return htmlspecialchars( trim( $show ) );
                }
            }
        }

        // If all else fails, return a standard duration or timestamp description.
        $time = strtotime( $str, $now );
        if ( $time === false ) { // Unknown format. Return it as-is in case.
            return $str;
        } elseif ( $time !== strtotime( $str, $now + 1 ) ) { // It's a relative timestamp.
            // The result differs based on current time, so the difference
            // is a fixed duration length.
            return $this->formatDuration( $time - $now );
        } else { // It's an absolute timestamp.
            if ( $time === 0 ) {
                // wfTimestamp() handles 0 as current time instead of epoch.
                $time = '19700101000000';
            }
            if ( $user ) {
                return $this->userTimeAndDate( $time, $user );
            }
            return $this->timeanddate( $time );
        }
    }

    /**
     * languages like Chinese need to be segmented in order for the diff
     * to be of any use
     *
     * @param string $text
     * @return string
     */
    public function segmentForDiff( $text ) {
        return $text;
    }

    /**
     * and unsegment to show the result
     *
     * @param string $text
     * @return string
     */
    public function unsegmentForDiff( $text ) {
        return $text;
    }

    /**
     * Return the LanguageConverter used in the Language
     *
     * @since 1.19
     * @deprecated since 1.35 Use MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageConverterFactory()
     *     ->getLanguageConverter( $language ) instead
     *
     * @return ILanguageConverter
     */
    public function getConverter() : ILanguageConverter {
        return $this->converterFactory->getLanguageConverter( $this );
    }

    /**
     * convert text to a variant
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::autoConvert
     *
     * @param string $text text to convert
     * @param string|bool $variant variant to convert to, or false to use the user's preferred
     *      variant (if logged in), or the project default variant
     * @return string the converted string
     */
    public function autoConvert( $text, $variant = false ) {
        return $this->getConverter()->autoConvert( $text, $variant );
    }

    /**
     * convert text to all supported variants
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::autoConvertToAllVariants
     *
     * @param string $text
     * @return array
     */
    public function autoConvertToAllVariants( $text ) {
        return $this->getConverter()->autoConvertToAllVariants( $text );
    }

    /**
     * convert text to different variants of a language.
     *
     * @warning Glossary state is maintained between calls. This means
     *  if you pass unescaped text to this method it can cause an XSS
     *  in later calls to this method, even if the later calls have properly
     *  escaped the input. Never feed this method user controlled text that
     *  is not properly escaped!
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::convert
     *
     * @param string $text Content that has been already escaped for use in HTML
     * @return string HTML
     */
    public function convert( $text ) {
        return $this->getConverter()->convert( $text );
    }

    /**
     * Convert a Title object to a string in the preferred variant
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::convertTitle
     *
     * @param Title $title
     * @return string
     */
    public function convertTitle( $title ) {
        return $this->getConverter()->convertTitle( $title );
    }

    /**
     * Convert a namespace index to a string in the preferred variant
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::convertNamespace instead
     *
     * @param int $ns namespace index (https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Manual:Namespace)
     * @param string|null $variant variant to convert to, or null to use the user's preferred
     *      variant (if logged in), or the project default variant
     * @return string a string representation of the namespace
     */
    public function convertNamespace( $ns, $variant = null ) {
        return $this->getConverter()->convertNamespace( $ns, $variant );
    }

    /**
     * Check if this is a language with variants
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::hasVariants instead
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public function hasVariants() {
        return count( $this->getVariants() ) > 1;
    }

    /**
     * Strict check if the language has the specific variant.
     *
     * Compare to LanguageConverter::validateVariant() which does a more
     * lenient check and attempts to coerce the given code to a valid one.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::hasVariant instead
     *
     * @since 1.19
     * @param string $variant
     * @return bool
     */
    public function hasVariant( $variant ) {
        return $this->getConverter()->hasVariant( $variant );
    }

    /**
     * Perform output conversion on a string, and encode for safe HTML output.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::convertHtml instead
     *
     * @param string $text Text to be converted
     * @return string
     * @todo this should get integrated somewhere sane
     */
    public function convertHtml( $text ) {
        return htmlspecialchars( $this->convert( $text ) );
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::convertCategoryKey instead
     *
     * @param string $key
     * @return string
     */
    public function convertCategoryKey( $key ) {
        return $this->getConverter()->convertCategoryKey( $key );
    }

    /**
     * Get the list of variants supported by this language
     * see sample implementation in LanguageZh.php
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35  use LanguageConverter::getVariants instead
     *
     * @return string[] An array of language codes
     */
    public function getVariants() {
        return $this->getConverter()->getVariants();
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::getPreferredVariant instead
     * @return string
     */
    public function getPreferredVariant() {
        return $this->getConverter()->getPreferredVariant();
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::getDefaultVariant instead
     * @return string
     */
    public function getDefaultVariant() {
        return $this->getConverter()->getDefaultVariant();
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::getURLVariant instead
     * @return string
     */
    public function getURLVariant() {
        return $this->getConverter()->getURLVariant();
    }

    /**
     * If a language supports multiple variants, it is
     * possible that non-existing link in one variant
     * actually exists in another variant. this function
     * tries to find it. See e.g. LanguageZh.php
     * The input parameters may be modified upon return
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::findVariantLink instead
     *
     * @param string &$link The name of the link
     * @param Title &$nt The title object of the link
     * @param bool $ignoreOtherCond To disable other conditions when
     *   we need to transclude a template or update a category's link
     */
    public function findVariantLink( &$link, &$nt, $ignoreOtherCond = false ) {
        $this->getConverter()->findVariantLink( $link, $nt, $ignoreOtherCond );
    }

    /**
     * returns language specific options used by User::getPageRenderHash()
     * for example, the preferred language variant
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::getExtraHashOptions instead
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function getExtraHashOptions() {
        return $this->getConverter()->getExtraHashOptions();
    }

    /**
     * Refresh the cache of conversion tables when
     * MediaWiki:Conversiontable* is updated.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::updateConversionTable instead
     *
     * @param LinkTarget $linkTarget The LinkTarget of the page being updated
     */
    public function updateConversionTable( LinkTarget $linkTarget ) {
        $this->getConverter()->updateConversionTable( $linkTarget );
    }

    /**
     * A regular expression to match legal word-trailing characters
     * which should be merged onto a link of the form [[foo]]bar.
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function linkTrail() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'linkTrail' );
    }

    /**
     * A regular expression character set to match legal word-prefixing
     * characters which should be merged onto a link of the form foo[[bar]].
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function linkPrefixCharset() {
        return $this->localisationCache->getItem( $this->mCode, 'linkPrefixCharset' );
    }

    /**
     * Get the "parent" language which has a converter to convert a "compatible" language
     * (in another variant) to this language (eg. zh for zh-cn, but not en for en-gb).
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFactory::getParentLanguage
     * @return Language|null
     * @since 1.22
     */
    public function getParentLanguage() {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageFactory()
            ->getParentLanguage( $this->getCode() );
    }

    /**
     * Compare with an other language object
     *
     * @since 1.28
     * @param Language $lang
     * @return bool
     */
    public function equals( Language $lang ) {
        return $lang === $this || $lang->getCode() === $this->mCode;
    }

    /**
     * Get the internal language code for this language object
     *
     * NOTE: The return value of this function is NOT HTML-safe and must be escaped with
     * htmlspecialchars() or similar
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function getCode() {
        return $this->mCode;
    }

    /**
     * Get the code in BCP 47 format which we can use
     * inside of html lang="" tags.
     *
     * NOTE: The return value of this function is NOT HTML-safe and must be escaped with
     * htmlspecialchars() or similar.
     *
     * @since 1.19
     * @return string
     */
    public function getHtmlCode() {
        if ( $this->mHtmlCode === null ) {
            $this->mHtmlCode = LanguageCode::bcp47( $this->getCode() );
        }
        return $this->mHtmlCode;
    }

    /**
     * Get the language code from a file name. Inverse of getFileName()
     * @param string $filename $prefix . $languageCode . $suffix
     * @param string $prefix Prefix before the language code
     * @param string $suffix Suffix after the language code
     * @return string Language code, or false if $prefix or $suffix isn't found
     */
    public static function getCodeFromFileName( $filename, $prefix = 'Language', $suffix = '.php' ) {
        $m = null;
        preg_match( '/' . preg_quote( $prefix, '/' ) . '([A-Z][a-z_]+)' .
            preg_quote( $suffix, '/' ) . '/', $filename, $m );
        if ( !count( $m ) ) {
            return false;
        }
        return str_replace( '_', '-', strtolower( $m[1] ) );
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.35, this is an internal method and should not need
     * to be used elsewhere
     *
     * @param string $code
     * @param bool $fallback Whether we're going through language fallback chain
     * @return string Name of the language class
     */
    public static function classFromCode( $code, $fallback = true ) {
        wfDeprecated( __METHOD__, '1.35' );

        if ( $fallback && $code == 'en' ) {
            return 'Language';
        } else {
            return 'Language' . str_replace( '-', '_', ucfirst( $code ) );
        }
    }

    /**
     * Get the name of a file for a certain language code
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils
     * @param string $prefix Prepend this to the filename
     * @param string $code Language code
     * @param string $suffix Append this to the filename
     * @throws MWException
     * @return string $prefix . $mangledCode . $suffix
     */
    public static function getFileName( $prefix, $code, $suffix = '.php' ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->getFileName( $prefix, $code, $suffix );
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils
     * @param string $code
     * @return string
     */
    public static function getMessagesFileName( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->getMessagesFileName( $code );
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use LanguageNameUtils
     * @param string $code
     * @return string
     * @throws MWException
     * @since 1.23
     */
    public static function getJsonMessagesFileName( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageNameUtils()
            ->getJsonMessagesFileName( $code );
    }

    /**
     * Get the first fallback for a given language.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFallback::getFirst
     *
     * @param string $code
     * @return string|false False if no fallbacks
     */
    public static function getFallbackFor( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageFallback()->getFirst( $code )
            ?? false;
    }

    /**
     * Get the ordered list of fallback languages.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFallback::getAll
     *
     * @since 1.19
     * @param string $code Language code
     * @param int $mode Fallback mode, either MESSAGES_FALLBACKS (which always falls back to 'en'),
     *   or STRICT_FALLBACKS (which only falls back to 'en' when explicitly defined)
     * @throws InvalidArgumentException
     * @return array List of language codes
     */
    public static function getFallbacksFor( $code, $mode = LanguageFallback::MESSAGES ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageFallback()->getAll( $code, $mode );
    }

    /**
     * Get the ordered list of fallback languages, ending with the fallback
     * language chain for the site language.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LanguageFallback::getAllIncludingSiteLanguage
     *
     * @since 1.22
     * @param string $code Language code
     * @return array [ fallbacks, site fallbacks ]
     */
    public static function getFallbacksIncludingSiteLanguage( $code ) {
        return MediaWikiServices::getInstance()->getLanguageFallback()
            ->getAllIncludingSiteLanguage( $code );
    }

    /**
     * Get all messages for a given language
     * WARNING: this may take a long time. If you just need all message *keys*
     * but need the *contents* of only a few messages, consider using getMessageKeysFor().
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LocalisationCache directly
     *
     * @param string $code
     *
     * @return array
     */
    public static function getMessagesFor( $code ) {
        return self::getLocalisationCache()->getItem( $code, 'messages' );
    }

    /**
     * Get a message for a given language
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LocalisationCache directly
     *
     * @param string $key
     * @param string $code
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public static function getMessageFor( $key, $code ) {
        return self::getLocalisationCache()->getSubitem( $code, 'messages', $key );
    }

    /**
     * Get all message keys for a given language. This is a faster alternative to
     * array_keys( Language::getMessagesFor( $code ) )
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, use LocalisationCache directly
     *
     * @since 1.19
     * @param string $code Language code
     * @return array Array of message keys (strings)
     */
    public static function getMessageKeysFor( $code ) {
        return self::getLocalisationCache()->getSubitemList( $code, 'messages' );
    }

    /**
     * @param string $talk
     * @return string
     */
    private function fixVariableInNamespace( $talk ) {
        if ( strpos( $talk, '$1' ) === false ) {
            return $talk;
        }

        global $wgMetaNamespace;
        $talk = str_replace( '$1', $wgMetaNamespace, $talk );

        # Allow grammar transformations
        # Allowing full message-style parsing would make simple requests
        # such as action=raw much more expensive than they need to be.
        # This will hopefully cover most cases.
        $talk = preg_replace_callback(
            '/{{grammar:(.*?)\|(.*?)}}/i',
            function ( $m ) {
                return $this->convertGrammar( trim( $m[2] ), trim( $m[1] ) );
            },
            $talk
        );
        return str_replace( ' ', '_', $talk );
    }

    /**
     * Decode an expiry (block, protection, etc) which has come from the DB
     *
     * @param string $expiry Database expiry String
     * @param bool|int $format True to process using language functions, or TS_ constant
     *     to return the expiry in a given timestamp
     * @param string $infinity If $format is not true, use this string for infinite expiry
     * @return string
     * @since 1.18
     */
    public function formatExpiry( $expiry, $format = true, $infinity = 'infinity' ) {
        static $dbInfinity;
        if ( $dbInfinity === null ) {
            $dbInfinity = wfGetDB( DB_REPLICA )->getInfinity();
        }

        if ( $expiry == '' || $expiry === 'infinity' || $expiry == $dbInfinity ) {
            return $format === true
                ? $this->getMessageFromDB( 'infiniteblock' )
                : $infinity;
        } else {
            return $format === true
                ? $this->timeanddate( $expiry, /* User preference timezone */ true )
                : wfTimestamp( $format, $expiry );
        }
    }

    /**
     * Formats a time given in seconds into a string representation of that time.
     *
     * @param int|float $seconds
     * @param array $format An optional argument that formats the returned string in different ways:
     *   If $format['avoid'] === 'avoidhours': don't show hours, just show days
     *   If $format['avoid'] === 'avoidseconds': don't show seconds if $seconds >= 1 hour,
     *   If $format['avoid'] === 'avoidminutes': don't show seconds/minutes if $seconds > 48 hours,
     *   If $format['noabbrevs'] is true: use 'seconds' and friends instead of 'seconds-abbrev'
     *     and friends.
     * @note For backwards compatibility, $format may also be one of the strings 'avoidseconds'
     *     or 'avoidminutes'.
     * @return string
     */
    public function formatTimePeriod( $seconds, $format = [] ) {
        if ( !is_array( $format ) ) {
            $format = [ 'avoid' => $format ]; // For backwards compatibility
        }
        if ( !isset( $format['avoid'] ) ) {
            $format['avoid'] = false;
        }
        if ( !isset( $format['noabbrevs'] ) ) {
            $format['noabbrevs'] = false;
        }
        $secondsMsg = wfMessage(
            $format['noabbrevs'] ? 'seconds' : 'seconds-abbrev' )->inLanguage( $this );
        $minutesMsg = wfMessage(
            $format['noabbrevs'] ? 'minutes' : 'minutes-abbrev' )->inLanguage( $this );
        $hoursMsg = wfMessage(
            $format['noabbrevs'] ? 'hours' : 'hours-abbrev' )->inLanguage( $this );
        $daysMsg = wfMessage(
            $format['noabbrevs'] ? 'days' : 'days-abbrev' )->inLanguage( $this );

        if ( round( $seconds * 10 ) < 100 ) {
            $s = $this->formatNum( sprintf( "%.1f", round( $seconds * 10 ) / 10 ) );
            $s = $secondsMsg->params( $s )->text();
        } elseif ( round( $seconds ) < 60 ) {
            $s = $this->formatNum( round( $seconds ) );
            $s = $secondsMsg->params( $s )->text();
        } elseif ( round( $seconds ) < 3600 ) {
            $minutes = floor( $seconds / 60 );
            $secondsPart = round( fmod( $seconds, 60 ) );
            if ( $secondsPart == 60 ) {
                $secondsPart = 0;
                $minutes++;
            }
            $s = $minutesMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $minutes ) )->text();
            $s .= ' ';
            $s .= $secondsMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $secondsPart ) )->text();
        } elseif ( round( $seconds ) <= 2 * 86400 ) {
            $hours = floor( $seconds / 3600 );
            $minutes = floor( ( $seconds - $hours * 3600 ) / 60 );
            $secondsPart = round( $seconds - $hours * 3600 - $minutes * 60 );
            if ( $secondsPart == 60 ) {
                $secondsPart = 0;
                $minutes++;
            }
            if ( $minutes == 60 ) {
                $minutes = 0;
                $hours++;
            }
            $s = $hoursMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $hours ) )->text();
            $s .= ' ';
            $s .= $minutesMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $minutes ) )->text();
            if ( !in_array( $format['avoid'], [ 'avoidseconds', 'avoidminutes', 'avoidhours' ] ) ) {
                $s .= ' ' . $secondsMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $secondsPart ) )->text();
            }
        } else {
            $days = floor( $seconds / 86400 );
            if ( $format['avoid'] === 'avoidhours' ) {
                $hours = round( ( $seconds - $days * 86400 ) / 3600 );
                if ( $hours == 24 ) {
                    $hours = 0;
                    $days++;
                }
                $s = $daysMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $days ) )->text();
            } elseif ( $format['avoid'] === 'avoidminutes' ) {
                $hours = round( ( $seconds - $days * 86400 ) / 3600 );
                if ( $hours == 24 ) {
                    $hours = 0;
                    $days++;
                }
                $s = $daysMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $days ) )->text();
                $s .= ' ';
                $s .= $hoursMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $hours ) )->text();
            } elseif ( $format['avoid'] === 'avoidseconds' ) {
                $hours = floor( ( $seconds - $days * 86400 ) / 3600 );
                $minutes = round( ( $seconds - $days * 86400 - $hours * 3600 ) / 60 );
                if ( $minutes == 60 ) {
                    $minutes = 0;
                    $hours++;
                }
                if ( $hours == 24 ) {
                    $hours = 0;
                    $days++;
                }
                $s = $daysMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $days ) )->text();
                $s .= ' ';
                $s .= $hoursMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $hours ) )->text();
                $s .= ' ';
                $s .= $minutesMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $minutes ) )->text();
            } else {
                $s = $daysMsg->params( $this->formatNum( $days ) )->text();
                $s .= ' ';
                $s .= $this->formatTimePeriod( $seconds - $days * 86400, $format );
            }
        }
        return $s;
    }

    /**
     * Format a bitrate for output, using an appropriate
     * unit (bps, kbps, Mbps, Gbps, Tbps, Pbps, Ebps, Zbps or Ybps) according to
     *   the magnitude in question.
     *
     * This use base 1000. For base 1024 use formatSize(), for another base
     * see formatComputingNumbers().
     *
     * @param int $bps
     * @return string
     */
    public function formatBitrate( $bps ) {
        return $this->formatComputingNumbers( $bps, 1000, "bitrate-$1bits" );
    }

    /**
     * @param int $size Size of the unit
     * @param int $boundary Size boundary (1000, or 1024 in most cases)
     * @param string $messageKey Message key to be uesd
     * @return string
     */
    public function formatComputingNumbers( $size, $boundary, $messageKey ) {
        if ( $size <= 0 ) {
            return str_replace( '$1', $this->formatNum( $size ),
                $this->getMessageFromDB( str_replace( '$1', '', $messageKey ) )
            );
        }
        $sizes = [ '', 'kilo', 'mega', 'giga', 'tera', 'peta', 'exa', 'zeta', 'yotta' ];
        $index = 0;

        $maxIndex = count( $sizes ) - 1;
        while ( $size >= $boundary && $index < $maxIndex ) {
            $index++;
            $size /= $boundary;
        }

        // For small sizes no decimal places necessary
        $round = 0;
        if ( $index > 1 ) {
            // For MB and bigger two decimal places are smarter
            $round = 2;
        }
        $msg = str_replace( '$1', $sizes[$index], $messageKey );

        $size = round( $size, $round );
        $text = $this->getMessageFromDB( $msg );
        return str_replace( '$1', $this->formatNum( $size ), $text );
    }

    /**
     * Format a size in bytes for output, using an appropriate
     * unit (B, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB or YB) according to the magnitude in question
     *
     * This method use base 1024. For base 1000 use formatBitrate(), for
     * another base see formatComputingNumbers()
     *
     * @param int $size Size to format
     * @return string Plain text (not HTML)
     */
    public function formatSize( $size ) {
        return $this->formatComputingNumbers( $size, 1024, "size-$1bytes" );
    }

    /**
     * Make a list item, used by various special pages
     *
     * @param string $page Page link
     * @param string $details HTML safe text between brackets
     * @param bool $oppositedm Add the direction mark opposite to your
     *   language, to display text properly
     * @return string HTML escaped
     */
    public function specialList( $page, $details, $oppositedm = true ) {
        if ( !$details ) {
            return $page;
        }

        $dirmark = ( $oppositedm ? $this->getDirMark( true ) : '' ) . $this->getDirMark();
        return $page .
            $dirmark .
            $this->msg( 'word-separator' )->escaped() .
            $this->msg( 'parentheses' )->rawParams( $details )->escaped();
    }

    /**
     * Generate (prev x| next x) (20|50|100...) type links for paging
     *
     * @param Title $title Title object to link
     * @param int $offset
     * @param int $limit
     * @param array $query Optional URL query parameter string
     * @param bool $atend Optional param for specified if this is the last page
     * @return string
     * @deprecated since 1.34, use PrevNextNavigationRenderer::buildPrevNextNavigation()
     *  instead.
     */
    public function viewPrevNext( Title $title, $offset, $limit,
        array $query = [], $atend = false
    ) {
        wfDeprecated( __METHOD__, '1.34' );
        // @todo FIXME: Why on earth this needs one message for the text and another one for tooltip?

        # Make 'previous' link
        $prev = wfMessage( 'prevn' )->inLanguage( $this )->title( $title )->numParams( $limit )->text();
        if ( $offset > 0 ) {
            $plink = $this->numLink( $title, max( $offset - $limit, 0 ), $limit,
                $query, $prev, 'prevn-title', 'mw-prevlink' );
        } else {
            $plink = htmlspecialchars( $prev );
        }

        # Make 'next' link
        $next = wfMessage( 'nextn' )->inLanguage( $this )->title( $title )->numParams( $limit )->text();
        if ( $atend ) {
            $nlink = htmlspecialchars( $next );
        } else {
            $nlink = $this->numLink( $title, $offset + $limit, $limit,
                $query, $next, 'nextn-title', 'mw-nextlink' );
        }

        # Make links to set number of items per page
        $numLinks = [];
        foreach ( [ 20, 50, 100, 250, 500 ] as $num ) {
            $numLinks[] = $this->numLink( $title, $offset, $num,
                $query, $this->formatNum( $num ), 'shown-title', 'mw-numlink' );
        }

        return wfMessage( 'viewprevnext' )->inLanguage( $this )->title( $title
            )->rawParams( $plink, $nlink, $this->pipeList( $numLinks ) )->escaped();
    }

    /**
     * Helper function for viewPrevNext() that generates links
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35, used with {@link viewPrevNext} only
     *
     * @param Title $title Title object to link
     * @param int $offset
     * @param int $limit
     * @param array $query Extra query parameters
     * @param string $link Text to use for the link; will be escaped
     * @param string $tooltipMsg Name of the message to use as tooltip
     * @param string $class Value of the "class" attribute of the link
     * @return string HTML fragment
     */
    private function numLink( Title $title, $offset, $limit, array $query, $link,
        $tooltipMsg, $class
    ) {
        $query = [ 'limit' => $limit, 'offset' => $offset ] + $query;
        $tooltip = wfMessage( $tooltipMsg )->inLanguage( $this )->title( $title )
            ->numParams( $limit )->text();

        return Html::element( 'a', [ 'href' => $title->getLocalURL( $query ),
            'title' => $tooltip, 'class' => $class ], $link );
    }

    /**
     * Get the conversion rule title, if any.
     *
     * @deprecated since 1.35 use LanguageConverter::getConvRuleTitle instead
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function getConvRuleTitle() {
        return $this->getConverter()->getConvRuleTitle();
    }

    /**
     * Get the compiled plural rules for the language
     * @since 1.20
     * @return array Associative array with plural form, and plural rule as key-value pairs
     */
    public function getCompiledPluralRules() {
        $pluralRules =
            $this->localisationCache->getItem( strtolower( $this->mCode ), 'compiledPluralRules' );
        if ( !$pluralRules ) {
            $fallbacks = $this->getFallbackLanguages();
            foreach ( $fallbacks as $fallbackCode ) {
                $pluralRules = $this->localisationCache
                    ->getItem( strtolower( $fallbackCode ), 'compiledPluralRules' );
                if ( $pluralRules ) {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        return $pluralRules;
    }

    /**
     * Get the plural rules for the language
     * @since 1.20
     * @return array Associative array with plural form number and plural rule as key-value pairs
     */
    public function getPluralRules() {
        $pluralRules =
            $this->localisationCache->getItem( strtolower( $this->mCode ), 'pluralRules' );
        if ( !$pluralRules ) {
            $fallbacks = $this->getFallbackLanguages();
            foreach ( $fallbacks as $fallbackCode ) {
                $pluralRules = $this->localisationCache
                    ->getItem( strtolower( $fallbackCode ), 'pluralRules' );
                if ( $pluralRules ) {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        return $pluralRules;
    }

    /**
     * Get the plural rule types for the language
     * @since 1.22
     * @return array Associative array with plural form number and plural rule type as key-value pairs
     */
    public function getPluralRuleTypes() {
        $pluralRuleTypes =
            $this->localisationCache->getItem( strtolower( $this->mCode ), 'pluralRuleTypes' );
        if ( !$pluralRuleTypes ) {
            $fallbacks = $this->getFallbackLanguages();
            foreach ( $fallbacks as $fallbackCode ) {
                $pluralRuleTypes = $this->localisationCache
                    ->getItem( strtolower( $fallbackCode ), 'pluralRuleTypes' );
                if ( $pluralRuleTypes ) {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }
        return $pluralRuleTypes;
    }

    /**
     * Find the index number of the plural rule appropriate for the given number
     * @param int $number
     * @return int The index number of the plural rule
     */
    public function getPluralRuleIndexNumber( $number ) {
        $pluralRules = $this->getCompiledPluralRules();
        $form = Evaluator::evaluateCompiled( $number, $pluralRules );
        return $form;
    }

    /**
     * Find the plural rule type appropriate for the given number
     * For example, if the language is set to Arabic, getPluralType(5) should
     * return 'few'.
     * @since 1.22
     * @param int $number
     * @return string The name of the plural rule type, e.g. one, two, few, many
     */
    public function getPluralRuleType( $number ) {
        $index = $this->getPluralRuleIndexNumber( $number );
        $pluralRuleTypes = $this->getPluralRuleTypes();
        return $pluralRuleTypes[$index] ?? 'other';
    }

    /**
     * Get a HookContainer, for hook metadata and running extension hooks
     *
     * @since 1.35
     * @return HookContainer
     */
    protected function getHookContainer() {
        return $this->hookContainer;
    }

    /**
     * Get a HookRunner, for running core hooks
     *
     * @internal This is for use by core only. Hook interfaces may be removed
     *   without notice.
     * @since 1.35
     * @return HookRunner
     */
    protected function getHookRunner() {
        return $this->hookRunner;
    }
}