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import datetime
import decimal
import uuid
from functools import lru_cache
from itertools import chain

from django.conf import settings
from django.core.exceptions import FieldError
from django.db import utils
from django.db.backends.base.operations import BaseDatabaseOperations
from django.db.models import aggregates, fields
from django.db.models.expressions import Col
from django.utils import timezone
from django.utils.dateparse import parse_date, parse_datetime, parse_time
from django.utils.duration import duration_microseconds
from django.utils.functional import cached_property

class DatabaseOperations(BaseDatabaseOperations):
    cast_char_field_without_max_length = 'text'
    cast_data_types = {
        'DateField': 'TEXT',
        'DateTimeField': 'TEXT',
    explain_prefix = 'EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN'

    def bulk_batch_size(self, fields, objs):
        SQLite has a compile-time default (SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER) of
        999 variables per query.

        If there's only a single field to insert, the limit is 500
        if len(fields) == 1:
            return 500
        elif len(fields) > 1:
            return self.connection.features.max_query_params // len(fields)
            return len(objs)

    def check_expression_support(self, expression):
        bad_fields = (fields.DateField, fields.DateTimeField, fields.TimeField)
        bad_aggregates = (aggregates.Sum, aggregates.Avg, aggregates.Variance, aggregates.StdDev)
        if isinstance(expression, bad_aggregates):
            for expr in expression.get_source_expressions():
                    output_field = expr.output_field
                except FieldError:
                    # Not every subexpression has an output_field which is fine
                    # to ignore.
                    if isinstance(output_field, bad_fields):
                        raise utils.NotSupportedError(
                            'You cannot use Sum, Avg, StdDev, and Variance '
                            'aggregations on date/time fields in sqlite3 '
                            'since date/time is saved as text.'
        if isinstance(expression, aggregates.Aggregate) and len(expression.source_expressions) > 1:
            raise utils.NotSupportedError(
                "SQLite doesn't support DISTINCT on aggregate functions "
                "accepting multiple arguments."

    def date_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        Support EXTRACT with a user-defined function django_date_extract()
        that's registered in connect(). Use single quotes because this is a
        string and could otherwise cause a collision with a field name.
        return "django_date_extract('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type.lower(), field_name)

    def date_interval_sql(self, timedelta):
        return str(duration_microseconds(timedelta))

    def format_for_duration_arithmetic(self, sql):
        """Do nothing since formatting is handled in the custom function."""
        return sql

    def date_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        return "django_date_trunc('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type.lower(), field_name)

    def time_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        return "django_time_trunc('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type.lower(), field_name)

    def _convert_tznames_to_sql(self, tzname):
        if settings.USE_TZ:
            return "'%s'" % tzname, "'%s'" % self.connection.timezone_name
        return 'NULL', 'NULL'

    def datetime_cast_date_sql(self, field_name, tzname):
        return 'django_datetime_cast_date(%s, %s, %s)' % (
            field_name, *self._convert_tznames_to_sql(tzname),

    def datetime_cast_time_sql(self, field_name, tzname):
        return 'django_datetime_cast_time(%s, %s, %s)' % (
            field_name, *self._convert_tznames_to_sql(tzname),

    def datetime_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name, tzname):
        return "django_datetime_extract('%s', %s, %s, %s)" % (
            lookup_type.lower(), field_name, *self._convert_tznames_to_sql(tzname),

    def datetime_trunc_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name, tzname):
        return "django_datetime_trunc('%s', %s, %s, %s)" % (
            lookup_type.lower(), field_name, *self._convert_tznames_to_sql(tzname),

    def time_extract_sql(self, lookup_type, field_name):
        return "django_time_extract('%s', %s)" % (lookup_type.lower(), field_name)

    def pk_default_value(self):
        return "NULL"

    def _quote_params_for_last_executed_query(self, params):
        Only for last_executed_query! Don't use this to execute SQL queries!
        # This function is limited both by SQLITE_LIMIT_VARIABLE_NUMBER (the
        # number of parameters, default = 999) and SQLITE_MAX_COLUMN (the
        # number of return values, default = 2000). Since Python's sqlite3
        # module doesn't expose the get_limit() C API, assume the default
        # limits are in effect and split the work in batches if needed.
        BATCH_SIZE = 999
        if len(params) > BATCH_SIZE:
            results = ()
            for index in range(0, len(params), BATCH_SIZE):
                chunk = params[index:index + BATCH_SIZE]
                results += self._quote_params_for_last_executed_query(chunk)
            return results

        sql = 'SELECT ' + ', '.join(['QUOTE(?)'] * len(params))
        # Bypass Django's wrappers and use the underlying sqlite3 connection
        # to avoid logging this query - it would trigger infinite recursion.
        cursor = self.connection.connection.cursor()
        # Native sqlite3 cursors cannot be used as context managers.
            return cursor.execute(sql, params).fetchone()

    def last_executed_query(self, cursor, sql, params):
        # Python substitutes parameters in Modules/_sqlite/cursor.c with:
        # pysqlite_statement_bind_parameters(self->statement, parameters, allow_8bit_chars);
        # Unfortunately there is no way to reach self->statement from Python,
        # so we quote and substitute parameters manually.
        if params:
            if isinstance(params, (list, tuple)):
                params = self._quote_params_for_last_executed_query(params)
                values = tuple(params.values())
                values = self._quote_params_for_last_executed_query(values)
                params = dict(zip(params, values))
            return sql % params
        # For consistency with SQLiteCursorWrapper.execute(), just return sql
        # when there are no parameters. See #13648 and #17158.
            return sql

    def quote_name(self, name):
        if name.startswith('"') and name.endswith('"'):
            return name  # Quoting once is enough.
        return '"%s"' % name

    def no_limit_value(self):
        return -1

    def __references_graph(self, table_name):
        query = """
        WITH tables AS (
            SELECT %s name
            FROM sqlite_master
            JOIN tables ON (sql REGEXP %s || || %s)
        ) SELECT name FROM tables;
        params = (
        with self.connection.cursor() as cursor:
            results = cursor.execute(query, params)
            return [row[0] for row in results.fetchall()]

    def _references_graph(self):
        # 512 is large enough to fit the ~330 tables (as of this writing) in
        # Django's test suite.
        return lru_cache(maxsize=512)(self.__references_graph)

    def sql_flush(self, style, tables, sequences, allow_cascade=False):
        if tables and allow_cascade:
            # Simulate TRUNCATE CASCADE by recursively collecting the tables
            # referencing the tables to be flushed.
            tables = set(chain.from_iterable(self._references_graph(table) for table in tables))
        # Note: No requirement for reset of auto-incremented indices (cf. other
        # sql_flush() implementations). Just return SQL at this point
        return ['%s %s %s;' % (
        ) for table in tables]

    def adapt_datetimefield_value(self, value):
        if value is None:
            return None

        # Expression values are adapted by the database.
        if hasattr(value, 'resolve_expression'):
            return value

        # SQLite doesn't support tz-aware datetimes
        if timezone.is_aware(value):
            if settings.USE_TZ:
                value = timezone.make_naive(value, self.connection.timezone)
                raise ValueError("SQLite backend does not support timezone-aware datetimes when USE_TZ is False.")

        return str(value)

    def adapt_timefield_value(self, value):
        if value is None:
            return None

        # Expression values are adapted by the database.
        if hasattr(value, 'resolve_expression'):
            return value

        # SQLite doesn't support tz-aware datetimes
        if timezone.is_aware(value):
            raise ValueError("SQLite backend does not support timezone-aware times.")

        return str(value)

    def get_db_converters(self, expression):
        converters = super().get_db_converters(expression)
        internal_type = expression.output_field.get_internal_type()
        if internal_type == 'DateTimeField':
        elif internal_type == 'DateField':
        elif internal_type == 'TimeField':
        elif internal_type == 'DecimalField':
        elif internal_type == 'UUIDField':
        elif internal_type in ('NullBooleanField', 'BooleanField'):
        return converters

    def convert_datetimefield_value(self, value, expression, connection):
        if value is not None:
            if not isinstance(value, datetime.datetime):
                value = parse_datetime(value)
            if settings.USE_TZ and not timezone.is_aware(value):
                value = timezone.make_aware(value, self.connection.timezone)
        return value

    def convert_datefield_value(self, value, expression, connection):
        if value is not None:
            if not isinstance(value,
                value = parse_date(value)
        return value

    def convert_timefield_value(self, value, expression, connection):
        if value is not None:
            if not isinstance(value, datetime.time):
                value = parse_time(value)
        return value

    def get_decimalfield_converter(self, expression):
        # SQLite stores only 15 significant digits. Digits coming from
        # float inaccuracy must be removed.
        create_decimal = decimal.Context(prec=15).create_decimal_from_float
        if isinstance(expression, Col):
            quantize_value = decimal.Decimal(1).scaleb(-expression.output_field.decimal_places)

            def converter(value, expression, connection):
                if value is not None:
                    return create_decimal(value).quantize(quantize_value, context=expression.output_field.context)
            def converter(value, expression, connection):
                if value is not None:
                    return create_decimal(value)
        return converter

    def convert_uuidfield_value(self, value, expression, connection):
        if value is not None:
            value = uuid.UUID(value)
        return value

    def convert_booleanfield_value(self, value, expression, connection):
        return bool(value) if value in (1, 0) else value

    def bulk_insert_sql(self, fields, placeholder_rows):
        return " UNION ALL ".join(
            "SELECT %s" % ", ".join(row)
            for row in placeholder_rows

    def combine_expression(self, connector, sub_expressions):
        # SQLite doesn't have a ^ operator, so use the user-defined POWER
        # function that's registered in connect().
        if connector == '^':
            return 'POWER(%s)' % ','.join(sub_expressions)
        return super().combine_expression(connector, sub_expressions)

    def combine_duration_expression(self, connector, sub_expressions):
        if connector not in ['+', '-']:
            raise utils.DatabaseError('Invalid connector for timedelta: %s.' % connector)
        fn_params = ["'%s'" % connector] + sub_expressions
        if len(fn_params) > 3:
            raise ValueError('Too many params for timedelta operations.')
        return "django_format_dtdelta(%s)" % ', '.join(fn_params)

    def integer_field_range(self, internal_type):
        # SQLite doesn't enforce any integer constraints
        return (None, None)

    def subtract_temporals(self, internal_type, lhs, rhs):
        lhs_sql, lhs_params = lhs
        rhs_sql, rhs_params = rhs
        if internal_type == 'TimeField':
            return "django_time_diff(%s, %s)" % (lhs_sql, rhs_sql), lhs_params + rhs_params
        return "django_timestamp_diff(%s, %s)" % (lhs_sql, rhs_sql), lhs_params + rhs_params

    def insert_statement(self, ignore_conflicts=False):
        return 'INSERT OR IGNORE INTO' if ignore_conflicts else super().insert_statement(ignore_conflicts)