shellspec/shellspec

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Can't follow non-constant source. Use a directive to specify location.
Open

. "$SHELLSPEC_SUPPORT_BIN"
Severity: Minor
Found in helper/support/bin/printf by shellcheck

Can't follow non-constant source. Use a directive to specify location.

Problematic code:

. "$(find_install_dir)/lib.sh"

Correct code:

# shellcheck source=src/lib.sh
. "$(find_install_dir)/lib.sh"

Rationale:

ShellCheck is not able to include sourced files from paths that are determined at runtime. The file will not be read, potentially resulting in warnings about unassigned variables and similar.

Use a [[Directive]] to point shellcheck to a fixed location it can read instead.

Exceptions:

If you don't care that ShellCheck is unable to account for the file, specify # shellcheck source=/dev/null.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

eval exec "$SHELLSPEC_SHELL" "\"$exec\"" ${1+'"$@"'}
Severity: Minor
Found in shellspec by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

In POSIX sh, 'type' is undefined.
Open

if ! type : >/dev/null 2>&1; then
Severity: Minor
Found in contrib/builtins.sh by shellcheck

In POSIX sh, something is undefined.

You have declared that your script works with /bin/sh, but you are using features that have undefined behavior according to the POSIX specification.

It may currently work for you, but it can or will fail on other OS, the same OS with different configurations, from different contexts (like initramfs/chroot), or in different versions of the same OS, including future updates to your current system.

Either declare that your script requires a specific shell like #!/bin/bash or #!/bin/dash, or rewrite the script in a portable way.

For help with rewrites, the Ubuntu wiki has a list of portability issues that broke people's #!/bin/sh scripts when Ubuntu switched from Bash to Dash. See also Bashism on wooledge's wiki. ShellCheck may not warn about all these issues.

$'c-style-escapes'

bash, ksh:

a=$' \t\n'

POSIX:

a="$(printf '%b_' ' \t\n')"; a="${a%_}" # protect trailing \n

Want some good news? See http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=249#c590.

$"msgid"

Bash:

echo $"foo $(bar) baz"

POSIX:

. gettext.sh # GNU Gettext sh library
# ...
barout=$(bar)
eval_gettext 'foo $barout baz' # See GNU Gettext doc for more info.

Or you can change them to normal double quotes so you go without gettext.

Arithmetic for loops

Bash:

for ((init; test; next)); do foo; done

POSIX:

: $((init))
while [ $((test)) -ne 0 ]; do foo; : $((next)); done

Arithmetic exponentiation

Bash:

printf "%s\n" "$(( 2**63 ))"

POSIX:

The POSIX standard does not allow for exponents. However, you can replicate them completely built-in using a POSIX compatible function. As an example, the pow function from here.

pow () {
    set "$1" "$2" 1
    while [ "$2" -gt 0 ]; do
      set "$1" $(($2-1)) $(($1*$3))
    done
    # %d = signed decimal, %u = unsigned decimal
    # Either should overflow to 0
    printf "%d\n" "$3"
}

To compare:

$ echo "$(( 2**62 ))"
4611686018427387904
$ pow 2 62
4611686018427387904

Alternatively, if you don't mind using an external program, you can use bc. Be aware though: bash and other programs may abide by a certain maximum integer that bc does not (for bash that's: 64-bit signed long int, failing back to 32-bit signed long int).

Example:

# Note the overflow that gives a negative number
$ echo "$(( 2**63 ))"
-9223372036854775808

# No such problem
$ echo 2^63 | bc
9223372036854775808

# 'bc' just keeps on going
$ echo 2^1280 | bc
20815864389328798163850480654728171077230524494533409610638224700807\
21611934672059602447888346464836968484322790856201558276713249664692\
98162798132113546415258482590187784406915463666993231671009459188410\
95379622423387354295096957733925002768876520583464697770622321657076\
83317005651120933244966378183760369413644440628104205339687097746591\
6057756101739472373801429441421111406337458176

standalone ((..))

Bash:

((a=c+d))
((d)) && echo d is true.

POSIX:

: $((a=c+d)) # discard the output of the arith expn with `:` command
[ $((d)) -ne 0 ] && echo d is true. # manually check non-zero => true

select loops

It takes extra care over terminal columns to make select loop look like bash's, which generates a list with multiple items on one line, or like ls.

It is, however, still possible to make a naive translation for select foo in bar baz; do eat; done:

while
  _i=0 _foo= foo=
  for _name in bar baz; do echo "$((_i+=1))) $_name"; done
  printf '$# '; read _foo
do
  case _foo in 1) foo=bar;; 2) foo=baz;; *) continue;; esac
  eat
done

Here-strings

Bash, ksh:

grep aaa <<< "$g"

POSIX:

# not exactly the same -- <<< adds a trailing \n if $g doesn't end with \n
printf '%s' "$g" | grep aaa

echo flags

See https://unix.stackexchange.com/tags/echo/info.

${var/pat/replacement}

Bash:

echo "${TERM/%-256*}"

POSIX:

echo "$TERM" | sed -e 's/-256.*$//g'
# Special case for this since we are matching the end:
echo "${TERM%-256*}"

printf %q

Bash:

printf '%q ' "$@"

POSIX:

# TODO: Interpret it back to printf escapes for hard-to-copy chars like \t?
# See also: http://git.savannah.gnu.org/cgit/libtool.git/tree/gl/build-aux/funclib.sh?id=c60e054#n1029
reuse_quote()(
  for i; do
    __i_quote=$(printf '%s\n' "$i" | sed -e "s/'/'\\\\''/g"; echo x)
    printf "'%s'" "${__i_quote%x}"
  done
)
reuse_quote "$@"

Exception

Depends on what your expected POSIX shell providers would use.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

  eval "$SHELLSPEC_SHELL" "\"$exec\"" ${1+'"$@"'} >"$SHELLSPEC_INFILE"
Severity: Minor
Found in libexec/shellspec-runner.sh by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

  eval trans control ${1+'"$@"'}
Severity: Minor
Found in lib/libexec/translator.sh by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

  eval find_specfiles found_specfile ${1+'"$@"'}
Severity: Minor
Found in lib/libexec/executor.sh by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

        eval 'set -- "${OPTARG%%\=*}" "${OPTARG#*\=}"' ${1+'"$@"'}

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

  eval shellspec_syntax_dispatch modifier ${1+'"$@"'}
Severity: Minor
Found in lib/core/subjects/stderr.sh by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

  if [ ${SHELLSPEC_STDOUT+x} ]; then
Severity: Minor
Found in lib/core/subjects/stdout.sh by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Can't follow non-constant source. Use a directive to specify location.
Open

. "$SHELLSPEC_SUPPORT_BIN"
Severity: Minor
Found in helper/support/bin/@ls by shellcheck

Can't follow non-constant source. Use a directive to specify location.

Problematic code:

. "$(find_install_dir)/lib.sh"

Correct code:

# shellcheck source=src/lib.sh
. "$(find_install_dir)/lib.sh"

Rationale:

ShellCheck is not able to include sourced files from paths that are determined at runtime. The file will not be read, potentially resulting in warnings about unassigned variables and similar.

Use a [[Directive]] to point shellcheck to a fixed location it can read instead.

Exceptions:

If you don't care that ShellCheck is unable to account for the file, specify # shellcheck source=/dev/null.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

GP_HOSTNAME appears unused. Verify it or export it.
Open

GP_HOSTNAME=ubuntu
Severity: Minor
Found in contrib/demo.sh by shellcheck

foo appears unused. Verify it or export it.

Problematic code:

foo=42
echo "$FOO"

Correct code:

foo=42
echo "$foo"

Rationale:

Variables not used for anything are often associated with bugs, so ShellCheck warns about them.

Also note that something like local let foo=42 does not make a let statement local -- it instead declares an additional local variable named let.

Exceptions

ShellCheck may not always realize that the variable is in use (especially with indirection), and may not realize you don't care (with throwaway variables or unimplemented features).

For throwaway variables, consider using _ as a dummy:

read _ last _ zip _ _ <<< "$str"
echo "$last, $zip"

or use a directive to disable the warning:

# shellcheck disable=SC2034
read first last email zip lat lng <<< "$str"
echo "$last, $zip"

For indirection, there's not much you can do without rewriting to use arrays or similar:

bar=42  # will always appear unused
foo=bar
echo "${!foo}"

This is expected behavior, and not a bug. There is no good way to statically analyze indirection in shell scripts, just like static C analyzers have a hard time preventing segfaults.

As always, there are ways to [[ignore]] this and other messages if they frequently get in your way.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Tips depend on target shell and yours is unknown. Add a shebang.
Open

add() {
Severity: Minor
Found in contrib/demo/mylib.sh by shellcheck

Tips depend on target shell and yours is unknown. Add a shebang.

Problematic code:

echo "$RANDOM"   # Does this work?

Correct code:

#!/bin/sh
echo "$RANDOM"  # Unsupported in sh. Produces warning.

or

#!/bin/bash
echo "$RANDOM"  # Supported in bash. No warnings.

Rationale:

Different shells support different features. To give effective advice, ShellCheck needs to know which shell your script is going to run on. You will get a different numbers of warnings about different things depending on your target shell.

ShellCheck normally determines your target shell from the shebang (having e.g. #!/bin/sh as the first line). The shell can also be specified from the CLI with -s, e.g. shellcheck -s sh file.

If you don't specify shebang nor -s, ShellCheck gives this message and proceeds with some default (bash).

Note that this error can not be ignored with a [[directive]]. It is not a suggestion to improve your script, but a warning that ShellCheck lacks information it needs to be helpful.

Exceptions

None. Please either add a shebang or use -s.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

eval exec "$SHELLSPEC_SHELL" "\"$exec\"" ${1+'"$@"'}
Severity: Minor
Found in libexec/shellspec-load-env.sh by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

Severity: Minor
Found in bin/shellspec by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

In POSIX sh, 'builtin' is undefined.
Open

        builtin echo -n -; builtin echo -n n; return 0
Severity: Minor
Found in lib/general.sh by shellcheck

In POSIX sh, something is undefined.

You have declared that your script works with /bin/sh, but you are using features that have undefined behavior according to the POSIX specification.

It may currently work for you, but it can or will fail on other OS, the same OS with different configurations, from different contexts (like initramfs/chroot), or in different versions of the same OS, including future updates to your current system.

Either declare that your script requires a specific shell like #!/bin/bash or #!/bin/dash, or rewrite the script in a portable way.

For help with rewrites, the Ubuntu wiki has a list of portability issues that broke people's #!/bin/sh scripts when Ubuntu switched from Bash to Dash. See also Bashism on wooledge's wiki. ShellCheck may not warn about all these issues.

$'c-style-escapes'

bash, ksh:

a=$' \t\n'

POSIX:

a="$(printf '%b_' ' \t\n')"; a="${a%_}" # protect trailing \n

Want some good news? See http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=249#c590.

$"msgid"

Bash:

echo $"foo $(bar) baz"

POSIX:

. gettext.sh # GNU Gettext sh library
# ...
barout=$(bar)
eval_gettext 'foo $barout baz' # See GNU Gettext doc for more info.

Or you can change them to normal double quotes so you go without gettext.

Arithmetic for loops

Bash:

for ((init; test; next)); do foo; done

POSIX:

: $((init))
while [ $((test)) -ne 0 ]; do foo; : $((next)); done

Arithmetic exponentiation

Bash:

printf "%s\n" "$(( 2**63 ))"

POSIX:

The POSIX standard does not allow for exponents. However, you can replicate them completely built-in using a POSIX compatible function. As an example, the pow function from here.

pow () {
    set "$1" "$2" 1
    while [ "$2" -gt 0 ]; do
      set "$1" $(($2-1)) $(($1*$3))
    done
    # %d = signed decimal, %u = unsigned decimal
    # Either should overflow to 0
    printf "%d\n" "$3"
}

To compare:

$ echo "$(( 2**62 ))"
4611686018427387904
$ pow 2 62
4611686018427387904

Alternatively, if you don't mind using an external program, you can use bc. Be aware though: bash and other programs may abide by a certain maximum integer that bc does not (for bash that's: 64-bit signed long int, failing back to 32-bit signed long int).

Example:

# Note the overflow that gives a negative number
$ echo "$(( 2**63 ))"
-9223372036854775808

# No such problem
$ echo 2^63 | bc
9223372036854775808

# 'bc' just keeps on going
$ echo 2^1280 | bc
20815864389328798163850480654728171077230524494533409610638224700807\
21611934672059602447888346464836968484322790856201558276713249664692\
98162798132113546415258482590187784406915463666993231671009459188410\
95379622423387354295096957733925002768876520583464697770622321657076\
83317005651120933244966378183760369413644440628104205339687097746591\
6057756101739472373801429441421111406337458176

standalone ((..))

Bash:

((a=c+d))
((d)) && echo d is true.

POSIX:

: $((a=c+d)) # discard the output of the arith expn with `:` command
[ $((d)) -ne 0 ] && echo d is true. # manually check non-zero => true

select loops

It takes extra care over terminal columns to make select loop look like bash's, which generates a list with multiple items on one line, or like ls.

It is, however, still possible to make a naive translation for select foo in bar baz; do eat; done:

while
  _i=0 _foo= foo=
  for _name in bar baz; do echo "$((_i+=1))) $_name"; done
  printf '$# '; read _foo
do
  case _foo in 1) foo=bar;; 2) foo=baz;; *) continue;; esac
  eat
done

Here-strings

Bash, ksh:

grep aaa <<< "$g"

POSIX:

# not exactly the same -- <<< adds a trailing \n if $g doesn't end with \n
printf '%s' "$g" | grep aaa

echo flags

See https://unix.stackexchange.com/tags/echo/info.

${var/pat/replacement}

Bash:

echo "${TERM/%-256*}"

POSIX:

echo "$TERM" | sed -e 's/-256.*$//g'
# Special case for this since we are matching the end:
echo "${TERM%-256*}"

printf %q

Bash:

printf '%q ' "$@"

POSIX:

# TODO: Interpret it back to printf escapes for hard-to-copy chars like \t?
# See also: http://git.savannah.gnu.org/cgit/libtool.git/tree/gl/build-aux/funclib.sh?id=c60e054#n1029
reuse_quote()(
  for i; do
    __i_quote=$(printf '%s\n' "$i" | sed -e "s/'/'\\\\''/g"; echo x)
    printf "'%s'" "${__i_quote%x}"
  done
)
reuse_quote "$@"

Exception

Depends on what your expected POSIX shell providers would use.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Quote this to prevent word splitting.
Open

shellspec --no-banner --skip-message quiet $(shellspec --list specfiles | head -n 5)
Severity: Minor
Found in contrib/various_test.sh by shellcheck

Quote this to prevent word splitting

Problematic code:

ls -l $(getfilename)

Correct code:

# getfilename outputs 1 file
ls -l "$(getfilename)"

# getfilename outputs multiple files, linefeed separated
getfilename | while IFS='' read -r line
do
  ls -l "$line"
done

Rationale:

When command expansions are unquoted, word splitting and globbing will occur. This often manifests itself by breaking when filenames contain spaces.

Trying to fix it by adding quotes or escapes to the data will not work. Instead, quote the command substitution itself.

If the command substitution outputs multiple pieces of data, use a loop instead.

Exceptions

In rare cases you actually want word splitting, such as in

gcc $(pkg-config --libs openssl) client.c

This is because pkg-config outputs -lssl -lcrypto, which you want to break up by spaces into -lssl and -lcrypto. An alternative is to put the variables to an array and expand it:

args=( $(pkg-config --libs openssl) )
gcc "${args[@]}" client.c

The power of using an array becomes evident when you want to combine, for example, the command result with user-provided arguments:

compile () {
    args=( $(pkg-config --libs openssl) "${@}" )
    gcc "${args[@]}" client.c
}
compile -DDEBUG
+ gcc -lssl -lcrypto -DDEBUG client.c

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Quote this to prevent word splitting.
Open

count helper $(helpers)
Severity: Minor
Found in contrib/check.sh by shellcheck

Quote this to prevent word splitting

Problematic code:

ls -l $(getfilename)

Correct code:

# getfilename outputs 1 file
ls -l "$(getfilename)"

# getfilename outputs multiple files, linefeed separated
getfilename | while IFS='' read -r line
do
  ls -l "$line"
done

Rationale:

When command expansions are unquoted, word splitting and globbing will occur. This often manifests itself by breaking when filenames contain spaces.

Trying to fix it by adding quotes or escapes to the data will not work. Instead, quote the command substitution itself.

If the command substitution outputs multiple pieces of data, use a loop instead.

Exceptions

In rare cases you actually want word splitting, such as in

gcc $(pkg-config --libs openssl) client.c

This is because pkg-config outputs -lssl -lcrypto, which you want to break up by spaces into -lssl and -lcrypto. An alternative is to put the variables to an array and expand it:

args=( $(pkg-config --libs openssl) )
gcc "${args[@]}" client.c

The power of using an array becomes evident when you want to combine, for example, the command result with user-provided arguments:

compile () {
    args=( $(pkg-config --libs openssl) "${@}" )
    gcc "${args[@]}" client.c
}
compile -DDEBUG
+ gcc -lssl -lcrypto -DDEBUG client.c

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

In POSIX sh, 'type' is undefined.
Open

  type "$1" >/dev/null 2>&1 && return 0
Severity: Minor
Found in install.sh by shellcheck

In POSIX sh, something is undefined.

You have declared that your script works with /bin/sh, but you are using features that have undefined behavior according to the POSIX specification.

It may currently work for you, but it can or will fail on other OS, the same OS with different configurations, from different contexts (like initramfs/chroot), or in different versions of the same OS, including future updates to your current system.

Either declare that your script requires a specific shell like #!/bin/bash or #!/bin/dash, or rewrite the script in a portable way.

For help with rewrites, the Ubuntu wiki has a list of portability issues that broke people's #!/bin/sh scripts when Ubuntu switched from Bash to Dash. See also Bashism on wooledge's wiki. ShellCheck may not warn about all these issues.

$'c-style-escapes'

bash, ksh:

a=$' \t\n'

POSIX:

a="$(printf '%b_' ' \t\n')"; a="${a%_}" # protect trailing \n

Want some good news? See http://austingroupbugs.net/view.php?id=249#c590.

$"msgid"

Bash:

echo $"foo $(bar) baz"

POSIX:

. gettext.sh # GNU Gettext sh library
# ...
barout=$(bar)
eval_gettext 'foo $barout baz' # See GNU Gettext doc for more info.

Or you can change them to normal double quotes so you go without gettext.

Arithmetic for loops

Bash:

for ((init; test; next)); do foo; done

POSIX:

: $((init))
while [ $((test)) -ne 0 ]; do foo; : $((next)); done

Arithmetic exponentiation

Bash:

printf "%s\n" "$(( 2**63 ))"

POSIX:

The POSIX standard does not allow for exponents. However, you can replicate them completely built-in using a POSIX compatible function. As an example, the pow function from here.

pow () {
    set "$1" "$2" 1
    while [ "$2" -gt 0 ]; do
      set "$1" $(($2-1)) $(($1*$3))
    done
    # %d = signed decimal, %u = unsigned decimal
    # Either should overflow to 0
    printf "%d\n" "$3"
}

To compare:

$ echo "$(( 2**62 ))"
4611686018427387904
$ pow 2 62
4611686018427387904

Alternatively, if you don't mind using an external program, you can use bc. Be aware though: bash and other programs may abide by a certain maximum integer that bc does not (for bash that's: 64-bit signed long int, failing back to 32-bit signed long int).

Example:

# Note the overflow that gives a negative number
$ echo "$(( 2**63 ))"
-9223372036854775808

# No such problem
$ echo 2^63 | bc
9223372036854775808

# 'bc' just keeps on going
$ echo 2^1280 | bc
20815864389328798163850480654728171077230524494533409610638224700807\
21611934672059602447888346464836968484322790856201558276713249664692\
98162798132113546415258482590187784406915463666993231671009459188410\
95379622423387354295096957733925002768876520583464697770622321657076\
83317005651120933244966378183760369413644440628104205339687097746591\
6057756101739472373801429441421111406337458176

standalone ((..))

Bash:

((a=c+d))
((d)) && echo d is true.

POSIX:

: $((a=c+d)) # discard the output of the arith expn with `:` command
[ $((d)) -ne 0 ] && echo d is true. # manually check non-zero => true

select loops

It takes extra care over terminal columns to make select loop look like bash's, which generates a list with multiple items on one line, or like ls.

It is, however, still possible to make a naive translation for select foo in bar baz; do eat; done:

while
  _i=0 _foo= foo=
  for _name in bar baz; do echo "$((_i+=1))) $_name"; done
  printf '$# '; read _foo
do
  case _foo in 1) foo=bar;; 2) foo=baz;; *) continue;; esac
  eat
done

Here-strings

Bash, ksh:

grep aaa <<< "$g"

POSIX:

# not exactly the same -- <<< adds a trailing \n if $g doesn't end with \n
printf '%s' "$g" | grep aaa

echo flags

See https://unix.stackexchange.com/tags/echo/info.

${var/pat/replacement}

Bash:

echo "${TERM/%-256*}"

POSIX:

echo "$TERM" | sed -e 's/-256.*$//g'
# Special case for this since we are matching the end:
echo "${TERM%-256*}"

printf %q

Bash:

printf '%q ' "$@"

POSIX:

# TODO: Interpret it back to printf escapes for hard-to-copy chars like \t?
# See also: http://git.savannah.gnu.org/cgit/libtool.git/tree/gl/build-aux/funclib.sh?id=c60e054#n1029
reuse_quote()(
  for i; do
    __i_quote=$(printf '%s\n' "$i" | sed -e "s/'/'\\\\''/g"; echo x)
    printf "'%s'" "${__i_quote%x}"
  done
)
reuse_quote "$@"

Exception

Depends on what your expected POSIX shell providers would use.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

On most OS, shebangs can only specify a single parameter.
Open

#!/bin/sh -u -u
Severity: Minor
Found in libexec/shellspec-shebang by shellcheck

On most OS, shebangs can only specify a single parameter.

Problematic code:

#!/usr/bin/env bash -x

Correct code:

#!/usr/bin/env bash
set -x

Rationale:

Most operating systems, including POSIX, Linux and FreeBSD, allow only a single parameter in the shebang. The example is equivalent to calling env 'bash -x' instead of env 'bash' '-x', and it will therefore fail.

The shebang should be rewritten to use at most one parameter. Shell options can instead be set in the body of the script.

Exceptions

macOS X currently allows multiple words in the shebang. Scripts running on OSX exclusively can ignore this warning.

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
Open

  eval trans data_end ${1+'"$@"'}
Severity: Minor
Found in lib/libexec/translator.sh by shellcheck

Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.

Problematic code:

echo $1
for i in $*; do :; done # this done and the next one also applies to expanding arrays.
for i in $@; do :; done

Correct code:

echo "$1"
for i in "$@"; do :; done # or, 'for i; do'

Rationale

The first code looks like "print the first argument". It's actually "Split the first argument by IFS (spaces, tabs and line feeds). Expand each of them as if it was a glob. Join all the resulting strings and filenames with spaces. Print the result."

The second one looks like "iterate through all arguments". It's actually "join all the arguments by the first character of IFS (space), split them by IFS and expand each of them as globs, and iterate on the resulting list". The third one skips the joining part.

Quoting variables prevents word splitting and glob expansion, and prevents the script from breaking when input contains spaces, line feeds, glob characters and such.

Strictly speaking, only expansions themselves need to be quoted, but for stylistic reasons, entire arguments with multiple variable and literal parts are often quoted as one:

$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file        # Unquoted (bad)
"$HOME"/"$dir"/dist/bin/"$file"  # Minimal quoting (good)
"$HOME/$dir/dist/bin/$file"      # Canonical quoting (good)

When quoting composite arguments, make sure to exclude globs and brace expansions, which lose their special meaning in double quotes: "$HOME/$dir/src/*.c" will not expand, but "$HOME/$dir/src"/*.c will.

Note that $( ) starts a new context, and variables in it have to be quoted independently:

echo "This $variable is quoted $(but this $variable is not)"
echo "This $variable is quoted $(and now this "$variable" is too)"

Exceptions

Sometimes you want to split on spaces, like when building a command line:

options="-j 5 -B"
make $options file

Just quoting this doesn't work. Instead, you should have used an array (bash, ksh, zsh):

options=(-j 5 -B) # ksh: set -A options -- -j 5 -B
make "${options[@]}" file

or a function (POSIX):

make_with_flags() { make -j 5 -B "$@"; }
make_with_flags file

To split on spaces but not perform glob expansion, Posix has a set -f to disable globbing. You can disable word splitting by setting IFS=''.

Similarly, you might want an optional argument:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="-x"
bash $debug script

Quoting this doesn't work, since in the default case, "$debug" would expand to one empty argument while $debug would expand into zero arguments. In this case, you can use an array with zero or one elements as outlined above, or you can use an unquoted expansion with an alternate value:

debug=""
[[ $1 == "--trace-commands" ]] && debug="yes"
bash ${debug:+"-x"} script

This is better than an unquoted value because the alternative value can be properly quoted, e.g. wget ${output:+ -o "$output"}.


As always, this warning can be [[ignore]]d on a case-by-case basis.

this is especially relevant when BASH many not be available for the array work around. For example, use in eval or in command options where script has total control of the variables...

FLAGS="-av -e 'ssh -x' --delete --delete-excluded"
...
# shellcheck disable=SC2086
eval rsync $FLAGS ~/dir remote_host:dir

Notice

Original content from the ShellCheck https://github.com/koalaman/shellcheck/wiki.

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