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system/database/drivers/sqlsrv/sqlsrv_driver.php

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<?php
/**
 * CodeIgniter
 *
 * An open source application development framework for PHP
 *
 * This content is released under the MIT License (MIT)
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2014 - 2018, British Columbia Institute of Technology
 *
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
 * in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
 * to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
 * copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 *
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
 * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
 * THE SOFTWARE.
 *
 * @package    CodeIgniter
 * @author    EllisLab Dev Team
 * @copyright    Copyright (c) 2008 - 2014, EllisLab, Inc. (https://ellislab.com/)
 * @copyright    Copyright (c) 2014 - 2018, British Columbia Institute of Technology (http://bcit.ca/)
 * @license    http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT    MIT License
 * @link    https://codeigniter.com
 * @since    Version 2.0.3
 * @filesource
 */
defined('BASEPATH') OR exit('No direct script access allowed');

/**
 * SQLSRV Database Adapter Class
 *
 * Note: _DB is an extender class that the app controller
 * creates dynamically based on whether the query builder
 * class is being used or not.
 *
 * @package        CodeIgniter
 * @subpackage    Drivers
 * @category    Database
 * @author        EllisLab Dev Team
 * @link        https://codeigniter.com/user_guide/database/
 */
class CI_DB_sqlsrv_driver extends CI_DB {

    /**
     * Database driver
     *
     * @var    string
     */
    public $dbdriver = 'sqlsrv';

    /**
     * Scrollable flag
     *
     * Determines what cursor type to use when executing queries.
     *
     * FALSE or SQLSRV_CURSOR_FORWARD would increase performance,
     * but would disable num_rows() (and possibly insert_id())
     *
     * @var    mixed
     */
    public $scrollable;

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * ORDER BY random keyword
     *
     * @var    array
     */
    protected $_random_keyword = array('NEWID()', 'RAND(%d)');

    /**
     * Quoted identifier flag
     *
     * Whether to use SQL-92 standard quoted identifier
     * (double quotes) or brackets for identifier escaping.
     *
     * @var    bool
     */
    protected $_quoted_identifier = TRUE;

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Class constructor
     *
     * @param    array    $params
     * @return    void
     */
    public function __construct($params)
    {
        parent::__construct($params);

        // This is only supported as of SQLSRV 3.0
        if ($this->scrollable === NULL)
        {
            $this->scrollable = defined('SQLSRV_CURSOR_CLIENT_BUFFERED')
                ? SQLSRV_CURSOR_CLIENT_BUFFERED
                : FALSE;
        }
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Database connection
     *
     * @param    bool    $pooling
     * @return    resource
     */
    public function db_connect($pooling = FALSE)
    {
        $charset = in_array(strtolower($this->char_set), array('utf-8', 'utf8'), TRUE)
            ? 'UTF-8' : SQLSRV_ENC_CHAR;

        $connection = array(
            'UID'            => empty($this->username) ? '' : $this->username,
            'PWD'            => empty($this->password) ? '' : $this->password,
            'Database'        => $this->database,
            'ConnectionPooling'    => ($pooling === TRUE) ? 1 : 0,
            'CharacterSet'        => $charset,
            'Encrypt'        => ($this->encrypt === TRUE) ? 1 : 0,
            'ReturnDatesAsStrings'    => 1
        );

        // If the username and password are both empty, assume this is a
        // 'Windows Authentication Mode' connection.
        if (empty($connection['UID']) && empty($connection['PWD']))
        {
            unset($connection['UID'], $connection['PWD']);
        }

        if (FALSE !== ($this->conn_id = sqlsrv_connect($this->hostname, $connection)))
        {
            // Determine how identifiers are escaped
            $query = $this->query('SELECT CASE WHEN (@@OPTIONS | 256) = @@OPTIONS THEN 1 ELSE 0 END AS qi');
            $query = $query->row_array();
            $this->_quoted_identifier = empty($query) ? FALSE : (bool) $query['qi'];
            $this->_escape_char = ($this->_quoted_identifier) ? '"' : array('[', ']');
        }

        return $this->conn_id;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Select the database
     *
     * @param    string    $database
     * @return    bool
     */
    public function db_select($database = '')
    {
        if ($database === '')
        {
            $database = $this->database;
        }

        if ($this->_execute('USE '.$this->escape_identifiers($database)))
        {
            $this->database = $database;
            $this->data_cache = array();
            return TRUE;
        }

        return FALSE;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Execute the query
     *
     * @param    string    $sql    an SQL query
     * @return    resource
     */
    protected function _execute($sql)
    {
        return ($this->scrollable === FALSE OR $this->is_write_type($sql))
            ? sqlsrv_query($this->conn_id, $sql)
            : sqlsrv_query($this->conn_id, $sql, NULL, array('Scrollable' => $this->scrollable));
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Begin Transaction
     *
     * @return    bool
     */
    protected function _trans_begin()
    {
        return sqlsrv_begin_transaction($this->conn_id);
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Commit Transaction
     *
     * @return    bool
     */
    protected function _trans_commit()
    {
        return sqlsrv_commit($this->conn_id);
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Rollback Transaction
     *
     * @return    bool
     */
    protected function _trans_rollback()
    {
        return sqlsrv_rollback($this->conn_id);
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Affected Rows
     *
     * @return    int
     */
    public function affected_rows()
    {
        return sqlsrv_rows_affected($this->result_id);
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Insert ID
     *
     * Returns the last id created in the Identity column.
     *
     * @return    string
     */
    public function insert_id()
    {
        return $this->query('SELECT SCOPE_IDENTITY() AS insert_id')->row()->insert_id;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Database version number
     *
     * @return    string
     */
    public function version()
    {
        if (isset($this->data_cache['version']))
        {
            return $this->data_cache['version'];
        }

        if ( ! $this->conn_id OR ($info = sqlsrv_server_info($this->conn_id)) === FALSE)
        {
            return FALSE;
        }

        return $this->data_cache['version'] = $info['SQLServerVersion'];
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * List table query
     *
     * Generates a platform-specific query string so that the table names can be fetched
     *
     * @param    bool
     * @return    string    $prefix_limit
     */
    protected function _list_tables($prefix_limit = FALSE)
    {
        $sql = 'SELECT '.$this->escape_identifiers('name')
            .' FROM '.$this->escape_identifiers('sysobjects')
            .' WHERE '.$this->escape_identifiers('type')." = 'U'";

        if ($prefix_limit === TRUE && $this->dbprefix !== '')
        {
            $sql .= ' AND '.$this->escape_identifiers('name')." LIKE '".$this->escape_like_str($this->dbprefix)."%' "
                .sprintf($this->_escape_like_str, $this->_escape_like_chr);
        }

        return $sql.' ORDER BY '.$this->escape_identifiers('name');
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * List column query
     *
     * Generates a platform-specific query string so that the column names can be fetched
     *
     * @param    string    $table
     * @return    string
     */
    protected function _list_columns($table = '')
    {
        return 'SELECT COLUMN_NAME
            FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.Columns
            WHERE UPPER(TABLE_NAME) = '.$this->escape(strtoupper($table));
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Returns an object with field data
     *
     * @param    string    $table
     * @return    array
     */
    public function field_data($table)
    {
        $sql = 'SELECT COLUMN_NAME, DATA_TYPE, CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH, NUMERIC_PRECISION, COLUMN_DEFAULT
            FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.Columns
            WHERE UPPER(TABLE_NAME) = '.$this->escape(strtoupper($table));

        if (($query = $this->query($sql)) === FALSE)
        {
            return FALSE;
        }
        $query = $query->result_object();

        $retval = array();
        for ($i = 0, $c = count($query); $i < $c; $i++)
        {
            $retval[$i]            = new stdClass();
            $retval[$i]->name        = $query[$i]->COLUMN_NAME;
            $retval[$i]->type        = $query[$i]->DATA_TYPE;
            $retval[$i]->max_length        = ($query[$i]->CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH > 0) ? $query[$i]->CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH : $query[$i]->NUMERIC_PRECISION;
            $retval[$i]->default        = $query[$i]->COLUMN_DEFAULT;
        }

        return $retval;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Error
     *
     * Returns an array containing code and message of the last
     * database error that has occurred.
     *
     * @return    array
     */
    public function error()
    {
        $error = array('code' => '00000', 'message' => '');
        $sqlsrv_errors = sqlsrv_errors(SQLSRV_ERR_ERRORS);

        if ( ! is_array($sqlsrv_errors))
        {
            return $error;
        }

        $sqlsrv_error = array_shift($sqlsrv_errors);
        if (isset($sqlsrv_error['SQLSTATE']))
        {
            $error['code'] = isset($sqlsrv_error['code']) ? $sqlsrv_error['SQLSTATE'].'/'.$sqlsrv_error['code'] : $sqlsrv_error['SQLSTATE'];
        }
        elseif (isset($sqlsrv_error['code']))
        {
            $error['code'] = $sqlsrv_error['code'];
        }

        if (isset($sqlsrv_error['message']))
        {
            $error['message'] = $sqlsrv_error['message'];
        }

        return $error;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Update statement
     *
     * Generates a platform-specific update string from the supplied data
     *
     * @param    string    $table
     * @param    array    $values
     * @return    string
     */
    protected function _update($table, $values)
    {
        $this->qb_limit = FALSE;
        $this->qb_orderby = array();
        return parent::_update($table, $values);
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Truncate statement
     *
     * Generates a platform-specific truncate string from the supplied data
     *
     * If the database does not support the TRUNCATE statement,
     * then this method maps to 'DELETE FROM table'
     *
     * @param    string    $table
     * @return    string
     */
    protected function _truncate($table)
    {
        return 'TRUNCATE TABLE '.$table;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Delete statement
     *
     * Generates a platform-specific delete string from the supplied data
     *
     * @param    string    $table
     * @return    string
     */
    protected function _delete($table)
    {
        if ($this->qb_limit)
        {
            return 'WITH ci_delete AS (SELECT TOP '.$this->qb_limit.' * FROM '.$table.$this->_compile_wh('qb_where').') DELETE FROM ci_delete';
        }

        return parent::_delete($table);
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * LIMIT
     *
     * Generates a platform-specific LIMIT clause
     *
     * @param    string    $sql    SQL Query
     * @return    string
     */
    protected function _limit($sql)
    {
        // As of SQL Server 2012 (11.0.*) OFFSET is supported
        if (version_compare($this->version(), '11', '>='))
        {
            // SQL Server OFFSET-FETCH can be used only with the ORDER BY clause
            empty($this->qb_orderby) && $sql .= ' ORDER BY 1';

            return $sql.' OFFSET '.(int) $this->qb_offset.' ROWS FETCH NEXT '.$this->qb_limit.' ROWS ONLY';
        }

        $limit = $this->qb_offset + $this->qb_limit;

        // An ORDER BY clause is required for ROW_NUMBER() to work
        if ($this->qb_offset && ! empty($this->qb_orderby))
        {
            $orderby = $this->_compile_order_by();

            // We have to strip the ORDER BY clause
            $sql = trim(substr($sql, 0, strrpos($sql, $orderby)));

            // Get the fields to select from our subquery, so that we can avoid CI_rownum appearing in the actual results
            if (count($this->qb_select) === 0 OR strpos(implode(',', $this->qb_select), '*') !== FALSE)
            {
                $select = '*'; // Inevitable
            }
            else
            {
                // Use only field names and their aliases, everything else is out of our scope.
                $select = array();
                $field_regexp = ($this->_quoted_identifier)
                    ? '("[^\"]+")' : '(\[[^\]]+\])';
                for ($i = 0, $c = count($this->qb_select); $i < $c; $i++)
                {
                    $select[] = preg_match('/(?:\s|\.)'.$field_regexp.'$/i', $this->qb_select[$i], $m)
                        ? $m[1] : $this->qb_select[$i];
                }
                $select = implode(', ', $select);
            }

            return 'SELECT '.$select." FROM (\n\n"
                .preg_replace('/^(SELECT( DISTINCT)?)/i', '\\1 ROW_NUMBER() OVER('.trim($orderby).') AS '.$this->escape_identifiers('CI_rownum').', ', $sql)
                ."\n\n) ".$this->escape_identifiers('CI_subquery')
                ."\nWHERE ".$this->escape_identifiers('CI_rownum').' BETWEEN '.($this->qb_offset + 1).' AND '.$limit;
        }

        return preg_replace('/(^\SELECT (DISTINCT)?)/i','\\1 TOP '.$limit.' ', $sql);
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Insert batch statement
     *
     * Generates a platform-specific insert string from the supplied data.
     *
     * @param    string    $table    Table name
     * @param    array    $keys    INSERT keys
     * @param    array    $values    INSERT values
     * @return    string|bool
     */
    protected function _insert_batch($table, $keys, $values)
    {
        // Multiple-value inserts are only supported as of SQL Server 2008
        if (version_compare($this->version(), '10', '>='))
        {
            return parent::_insert_batch($table, $keys, $values);
        }

        return ($this->db_debug) ? $this->display_error('db_unsupported_feature') : FALSE;
    }

    // --------------------------------------------------------------------

    /**
     * Close DB Connection
     *
     * @return    void
     */
    protected function _close()
    {
        sqlsrv_close($this->conn_id);
    }

}