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# REST Client -- simple DSL for accessing HTTP and REST resources

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A simple HTTP and REST client for Ruby, inspired by the Sinatra's microframework style
of specifying actions: get, put, post, delete.

* Main page:
* Mailing list:

### New mailing list

We have a new email list for announcements, hosted by

* Subscribe on the web:

* Subscribe by sending an email:

* Open discussion subgroup:

The old Librelist mailing list is *defunct*, as Librelist appears to be broken
and not accepting new mail. The old archives are still up, but have been
imported into the new list archives as well.

## Requirements

MRI Ruby 2.0 and newer are supported. Alternative interpreters compatible with
2.0+ should work as well.

Earlier Ruby versions such as 1.8.7, 1.9.2, and 1.9.3 are no longer supported. These
versions no longer have any official support, and do not receive security

The rest-client gem depends on these other gems for usage at runtime:

* [mime-types](
* [netrc](
* [http-accept](
* [http-cookie](

There are also several development dependencies. It's recommended to use
[bundler]( to manage these dependencies for hacking on

### Upgrading to rest-client 2.0 from 1.x

Users are encouraged to upgrade to rest-client 2.0, which cleans up a number of
API warts and wrinkles, making rest-client generally more useful. Usage is
largely compatible, so many applications will be able to upgrade with no

Overview of significant changes:

* requires Ruby >= 2.0
* `RestClient::Response` objects are a subclass of `String` rather than a
  Frankenstein monster. And `#body` or `#to_s` return a true `String` object.
* cleanup of exception classes, including new `RestClient::Exceptions::Timeout`
* improvements to handling of redirects: responses and history are properly
* major changes to cookie support: cookie jars are used for browser-like
  behavior throughout
* encoding: Content-Type charset response headers are used to automatically set
  the encoding of the response string
* HTTP params: handling of GET/POST params is more consistent and sophisticated
  for deeply nested hash objects, and `ParamsArray` can be used to pass ordered
* improved proxy support with per-request proxy configuration, plus the ability
  to disable proxies set by environment variables
* default request headers: rest-client sets `Accept: */*` and
  `User-Agent: rest-client/...`

See [](./ for a more complete description of changes.

## Usage: Raw URL

Basic usage:

require 'rest-client'

RestClient.get(url, headers={}), payload, headers={})

In the high level helpers, only POST, PATCH, and PUT take a payload argument.
To pass a payload with other HTTP verbs or to pass more advanced options, use
`RestClient::Request.execute` instead.

More detailed examples:

require 'rest-client'

RestClient.get ''

RestClient.get '', {params: {id: 50, 'foo' => 'bar'}}

RestClient.get '', {accept: :json} '', {param1: 'one', nested: {param2: 'two'}} "", {'x' => 1}.to_json, {content_type: :json, accept: :json}

RestClient.delete ''

>> response = RestClient.get ''
=> <RestClient::Response 200 "<!doctype h...">
>> response.code
=> 200
>> response.cookies
=> {"Foo"=>"BAR", "QUUX"=>"QUUUUX"}
>> response.headers
=> {:content_type=>"text/html; charset=utf-8", :cache_control=>"private" ... }
>> response.body
=> "<!doctype html>\n<html>\n<head>\n    <title>Example Domain</title>\n\n ..." url,
    :transfer => {
      :path => '/foo/bar',
      :owner => 'that_guy',
      :group => 'those_guys'
     :upload => {
      :file =>, 'rb')
## Passing advanced options

The top level helper methods like RestClient.get accept a headers hash as
their last argument and don't allow passing more complex options. But these
helpers are just thin wrappers around `RestClient::Request.execute`.

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '',
                            timeout: 10)

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '',
                            ssl_ca_file: 'myca.pem',
                            ssl_ciphers: 'AESGCM:!aNULL')
You can also use this to pass a payload for HTTP verbs like DELETE, where the
`RestClient.delete` helper doesn't accept a payload.

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :delete, url: '',
                            payload: 'foo', headers: {myheader: 'bar'})

Due to unfortunate choices in the original API, the params used to populate the
query string are actually taken out of the headers hash. So if you want to pass
both the params hash and more complex options, use the special key
`:params` in the headers hash. This design may change in a future major

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '',
                            timeout: 10, headers: {params: {foo: 'bar'}})


## Multipart

Yeah, that's right!  This does multipart sends for you!

```ruby '/data', :myfile =>"/path/to/image.jpg", 'rb')

This does two things for you:

- Auto-detects that you have a File value sends it as multipart
- Auto-detects the mime of the file and sets it in the HEAD of the payload for each entry

If you are sending params that do not contain a File object but the payload needs to be multipart then:

```ruby '/data', {:foo => 'bar', :multipart => true}

## Usage: ActiveResource-Style

resource = ''

private_resource = '', 'user', 'pass'
private_resource.put'pic.jpg'), :content_type => 'image/jpg'

See RestClient::Resource module docs for details.

## Usage: Resource Nesting

site ='')
site['posts/1/comments'].post 'Good article.', :content_type => 'text/plain'
See `RestClient::Resource` docs for details.

## Exceptions (see

- for result codes between `200` and `207`, a `RestClient::Response` will be returned
- for result codes `301`, `302` or `307`, the redirection will be followed if the request is a `GET` or a `HEAD`
- for result code `303`, the redirection will be followed and the request transformed into a `GET`
- for other cases, a `RestClient::ExceptionWithResponse` holding the Response will be raised; a specific exception class will be thrown for known error codes
- call `.response` on the exception to get the server's response

>> RestClient.get ''
Exception: RestClient::NotFound: 404 Not Found

>> begin
     RestClient.get ''
   rescue RestClient::ExceptionWithResponse => e
=> <RestClient::Response 404 "<!doctype h...">

### Other exceptions

While most exceptions have been collected under `RestClient::RequestFailed` aka
`RestClient::ExceptionWithResponse`, there are a few quirky exceptions that
have been kept for backwards compatibility.

RestClient will propagate up exceptions like socket errors without modification:

>> RestClient.get 'http://localhost:12345'
Exception: Errno::ECONNREFUSED: Connection refused - connect(2) for "localhost" port 12345

RestClient handles a few specific error cases separately in order to give
better error messages. These will hopefully be cleaned up in a future major

`RestClient::ServerBrokeConnection` is translated from `EOFError` to give a
better error message.

`RestClient::SSLCertificateNotVerified` is raised when HTTPS validation fails.
Other `OpenSSL::SSL::SSLError` errors are raised as is.

### Redirection

By default, rest-client will follow HTTP 30x redirection requests.

__New in 2.0:__ `RestClient::Response` exposes a `#history` method that returns
a list of each response received in a redirection chain.

>> r = RestClient.get('')
=> <RestClient::Response 200 "{\n  \"args\":...">

# see each response in the redirect chain
>> r.history
=> [<RestClient::Response 302 "<!DOCTYPE H...">, <RestClient::Response 302 "">]

# see each requested URL
>> r.request.url
=> ""
>> {|x| x.request.url}
=> ["", ""]

#### Manually following redirection

To disable automatic redirection, set `:max_redirects => 0`.

__New in 2.0:__ Prior versions of rest-client would raise
`RestClient::MaxRedirectsReached`, with no easy way to access the server's
response. In 2.0, rest-client raises the normal
`RestClient::ExceptionWithResponse` as it would with any other non-HTTP-20x

>> RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '')
=> RestClient::Response 200 "{\n  "args":..."

>> RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '', max_redirects: 0)
RestClient::Found: 302 Found

To manually follow redirection, you can call `Response#follow_redirection`. Or
you could of course inspect the result and choose custom behavior.

>> RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '', max_redirects: 0)
RestClient::Found: 302 Found
>> begin
       RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '', max_redirects: 0)
   rescue RestClient::ExceptionWithResponse => err
>> err
=> #<RestClient::Found: 302 Found>
>> err.response
=> RestClient::Response 302 "<!DOCTYPE H..."
>> err.response.headers[:location]
=> "/get"
>> err.response.follow_redirection
=> RestClient::Response 200 "{\n  "args":..."

## Result handling

The result of a `RestClient::Request` is a `RestClient::Response` object.

__New in 2.0:__ `RestClient::Response` objects are now a subclass of `String`.
Previously, they were a real String object with response functionality mixed
in, which was very confusing to work with.

Response objects have several useful methods. (See the class rdoc for more details.)

- `Response#code`: The HTTP response code
- `Response#body`: The response body as a string. (AKA .to_s)
- `Response#headers`: A hash of HTTP response headers
- `Response#raw_headers`: A hash of HTTP response headers as unprocessed arrays
- `Response#cookies`: A hash of HTTP cookies set by the server
- `Response#cookie_jar`: <em>New in 1.8</em> An HTTP::CookieJar of cookies
- `Response#request`: The RestClient::Request object used to make the request
- `Response#history`: <em>New in 2.0</em> If redirection was followed, a list of prior Response objects

➔ <RestClient::Response 200 "<!doctype h...">

rescue RestClient::ExceptionWithResponse => err
➔ <RestClient::Response 404 "<!doctype h...">

### Response callbacks, error handling

A block can be passed to the RestClient method. This block will then be called with the Response.
Response.return! can be called to invoke the default response's behavior.

# Don't raise exceptions but return the response
>> RestClient.get('') {|response, request, result| response }
=> <RestClient::Response 404 "<!doctype h...">

# Manage a specific error code
RestClient.get('') { |response, request, result, &block|
  case response.code
  when 200
    p "It worked !"
  when 423
    raise SomeCustomExceptionIfYouWant

But note that it may be more straightforward to use exceptions to handle
different HTTP error response cases:

  resp = RestClient.get('')
rescue RestClient::Unauthorized, RestClient::Forbidden => err
  puts 'Access denied'
  return err.response
rescue RestClient::ImATeapot => err
  puts 'The server is a teapot! # RFC 2324'
  return err.response
  puts 'It worked!'
  return resp

For GET and HEAD requests, rest-client automatically follows redirection. For
other HTTP verbs, call `.follow_redirection` on the response object (works both
in block form and in exception form).

# Follow redirections for all request types and not only for get and head
# RFC : "If the 301, 302 or 307 status code is received in response to a request other than GET or HEAD,
#        the user agent MUST NOT automatically redirect the request unless it can be confirmed by the user,
#        since this might change the conditions under which the request was issued."

# block style'', 'body') { |response, request, result|
  case response.code
  when 301, 302, 307

# exception style by explicit classes
begin'', 'body')
rescue RestClient::MovedPermanently,
       RestClient::TemporaryRedirect => err

# exception style by response code
begin'', 'body')
rescue RestClient::ExceptionWithResponse => err
  case err.http_code
  when 301, 302, 307

## Non-normalized URIs

If you need to normalize URIs, e.g. to work with International Resource Identifiers (IRIs),
use the Addressable gem ( in your code:

  require 'addressable/uri'

## Lower-level access

For cases not covered by the general API, you can use the `RestClient::Request` class, which provides a lower-level API.

You can:

- specify ssl parameters
- override cookies
- manually handle the response (e.g. to operate on it as a stream rather than reading it all into memory)

See `RestClient::Request`'s documentation for more information.

### Streaming request payload

RestClient will try to stream any file-like payload rather than reading it into
memory. This happens through `RestClient::Payload::Streamed`, which is
automatically called internally by `RestClient::Payload.generate` on anything
with a `read` method.

>> r = RestClient.put('','/tmp/foo.txt', 'r'),
                      content_type: 'text/plain')
=> <RestClient::Response 200 "{\n  \"args\":...">

In Multipart requests, RestClient will also stream file handles passed as Hash
(or __new in 2.1__ ParamsArray).

>> r = RestClient.put('',
                      {file_a:'a.txt', 'r'),
                       file_b:'b.txt', 'r')})
=> <RestClient::Response 200 "{\n  \"args\":...">

# received by server as two file uploads with multipart/form-data
>> JSON.parse(r)['files'].keys
=> ['file_a', 'file_b']

### Streaming responses

Normally, when you use `RestClient.get` or the lower level
`RestClient::Request.execute method: :get` to retrieve data, the entire
response is buffered in memory and returned as the response to the call.

However, if you are retrieving a large amount of data, for example a Docker
image, an iso, or any other large file, you may want to stream the response
directly to disk rather than loading it in memory. If you have a very large
file, it may become *impossible* to load it into memory.

There are two main ways to do this:

#### `raw_response`, saves into Tempfile

If you pass `raw_response: true` to `RestClient::Request.execute`, it will save
the response body to a temporary file (using `Tempfile`) and return a
`RestClient::RawResponse` object rather than a `RestClient::Response`.

Note that the tempfile created by `` will be in `Dir.tmpdir`
(usually `/tmp/`), which you can override to store temporary files in a
different location. This file will be unlinked when it is dereferenced.

If logging is enabled, this will also print download progress.
__New in 2.1:__ Customize the interval with `:stream_log_percent` (defaults to
10 for printing a message every 10% complete).

For example:

>> raw = RestClient::Request.execute(
           method: :get,
           url: '',
           raw_response: true)
=> <RestClient::RawResponse @code=200, @file=#<Tempfile:/tmp/rest-client.20170522-5346-1pptjm1>, @request=<RestClient::Request @method="get", @url="">>
>> raw.file.size
=> 1554186240
>> raw.file.path
=> "/tmp/rest-client.20170522-5346-1pptjm1"
=> "/tmp/rest-client.20170522-5346-1pptjm1"

>> require 'digest/sha1'
>> Digest::SHA1.file(raw.file.path).hexdigest
=> "4375b73e3a1aa305a36320ffd7484682922262b3"

#### `block_response`, receives raw Net::HTTPResponse

If you want to stream the data from the response to a file as it comes, rather
than entirely in memory, you can also pass `RestClient::Request.execute` a
parameter `:block_response` to which you pass a block/proc. This block receives
the raw unmodified Net::HTTPResponse object from Net::HTTP, which you can use
to stream directly to a file as each chunk is received.

Note that this bypasses all the usual HTTP status code handling, so you will
want to do you own checking for HTTP 20x response codes, redirects, etc.

The following is an example:

````ruby'/some/output/file', 'w') {|f|
  block = proc { |response|
    response.read_body do |chunk|
      f.write chunk
  RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get,
                              url: '',
                              block_response: block)

## Shell

The restclient shell command gives an IRB session with RestClient already loaded:

$ restclient
>> RestClient.get ''

Specify a URL argument for get/post/put/delete on that resource:

$ restclient
>> put '/resource', 'data'

Add a user and password for authenticated resources:

$ restclient user pass
>> delete '/private/resource'

Create ~/.restclient for named sessions:

    url: http://localhost:4567
    url: http://localhost:9292
    username: user
    password: pass

Then invoke:

$ restclient private_site

Use as a one-off, curl-style:

$ restclient get > output_body

$ restclient put < input_body

## Logging

To enable logging globally you can:

- set RestClient.log with a Ruby Logger

RestClient.log = STDOUT

- or set an environment variable to avoid modifying the code (in this case you can use a file name, "stdout" or "stderr"):

$ RESTCLIENT_LOG=stdout path/to/my/program

You can also set individual loggers when instantiating a Resource or making an
individual request:

resource = '', log:

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '', log:

All options produce logs like this:

RestClient.get "http://some/resource"
# => 200 OK | text/html 250 bytes
RestClient.put "http://some/resource", "payload"
# => 401 Unauthorized | application/xml 340 bytes

Note that these logs are valid Ruby, so you can paste them into the `restclient`
shell or a script to replay your sequence of rest calls.

## Proxy

All calls to RestClient, including Resources, will use the proxy specified by

RestClient.proxy = ""
RestClient.get "http://some/resource"
# => response from some/resource as proxied through

Often the proxy URL is set in an environment variable, so you can do this to
use whatever proxy the system is configured to use:

  RestClient.proxy = ENV['http_proxy']

__New in 2.0:__ Specify a per-request proxy by passing the :proxy option to
RestClient::Request. This will override any proxies set by environment variable
or by the global `RestClient.proxy` value.

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '',
                            proxy: '')
# => single request proxied through the proxy

This can be used to disable the use of a proxy for a particular request.

RestClient.proxy = ""
RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '', proxy: nil)
# => single request sent without a proxy

## Query parameters

Rest-client can render a hash as HTTP query parameters for GET/HEAD/DELETE
requests or as HTTP post data in `x-www-form-urlencoded` format for POST

__New in 2.0:__ Even though there is no standard specifying how this should
work, rest-client follows a similar convention to the one used by Rack / Rails
servers for handling arrays, nested hashes, and null values.

The implementation in
closely follows
but treats empty arrays and hashes as `nil`. (Rack drops them entirely, which
is confusing behavior.)

If you don't like this behavior and want more control, just serialize params
yourself (e.g. with `URI.encode_www_form`) and add the query string to the URL
directly for GET parameters or pass the payload as a string for POST requests.

Basic GET params:
RestClient.get('', params: {foo: 'bar', baz: 'qux'})
# GET ""

Basic `x-www-form-urlencoded` POST params:
>> r ='', {foo: 'bar', baz: 'qux'})
# POST "", data: "foo=bar&baz=qux"
=> <RestClient::Response 200 "{\n  \"args\":...">
>> JSON.parse(r.body)
=> {"args"=>{},
    "form"=>{"baz"=>"qux", "foo"=>"bar"},
        "Accept-Encoding"=>"gzip, deflate",

JSON payload: rest-client does not speak JSON natively, so serialize your
payload to a string before passing it to rest-client.
>> payload = {'name' => 'newrepo', 'description': 'A new repo'}
>>'', payload.to_json, content_type: :json)
=> <RestClient::Response 201 "{\"id\":75149...">

Advanced GET params (arrays):
>> r = RestClient.get('', params: {foo: [1,2,3]})
# GET "[]=1&foo[]=2&foo[]=3"
=> <RestClient::Response 200 "Method: GET...">
>> puts r.body
query_string: "foo[]=1&foo[]=2&foo[]=3"
decoded:      "foo[]=1&foo[]=2&foo[]=3"

  {"foo"=>["1", "2", "3"]}

Advanced GET params (nested hashes):
>> r = RestClient.get('', params: {outer: {foo: 123, bar: 456}})
# GET "[foo]=123&outer[bar]=456"
=> <RestClient::Response 200 "Method: GET...">
>> puts r.body
query_string: "outer[foo]=123&outer[bar]=456"
decoded:      "outer[foo]=123&outer[bar]=456"

  {"outer"=>{"foo"=>"123", "bar"=>"456"}}

__New in 2.0:__ The new `RestClient::ParamsArray` class allows callers to
provide ordering even to structured parameters. This is useful for unusual
cases where the server treats the order of parameters as significant or you
want to pass a particular key multiple times.

Multiple fields with the same name using ParamsArray:
>> RestClient.get('', params:
        [[:foo, 1], [:foo, 2]]))
# GET ""

Nested ParamsArray:
>> RestClient.get('', params:
                  {foo:[[:a, 1], [:a, 2]])})
# GET "[a]=1&foo[a]=2"

## Headers

Request headers can be set by passing a ruby hash containing keys and values
representing header names and values:

# GET request with modified headers
RestClient.get '', {:Authorization => 'Bearer cT0febFoD5lxAlNAXHo6g'}

# POST request with modified headers '', {:foo => 'bar', :baz => 'qux'}, {:Authorization => 'Bearer cT0febFoD5lxAlNAXHo6g'}

# DELETE request with modified headers
RestClient.delete '', {:Authorization => 'Bearer cT0febFoD5lxAlNAXHo6g'}

## Timeouts

By default the timeout for a request is 60 seconds. Timeouts for your request can
be adjusted by setting the `timeout:` to the number of seconds that you would like
the request to wait. Setting `timeout:` will override both `read_timeout:` and `open_timeout:`.

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '',
                            timeout: 120)

Additionally, you can set `read_timeout:` and `open_timeout:` separately.

RestClient::Request.execute(method: :get, url: '',
                            read_timeout: 120, open_timeout: 240)

## Cookies

Request and Response objects know about HTTP cookies, and will automatically
extract and set headers for them as needed:

response = RestClient.get ''
# => {"_applicatioN_session_id" => "1234"}

response2 =
  {:param1 => "foo"},
  {:cookies => {:session_id => "1234"}}
# ...response body
### Full cookie jar support (new in 1.8)

The original cookie implementation was very naive and ignored most of the
cookie RFC standards.
__New in 1.8__:  An HTTP::CookieJar of cookies

Response objects now carry a cookie_jar method that exposes an HTTP::CookieJar
of cookies, which supports full standards compliant behavior.

## SSL/TLS support

Various options are supported for configuring rest-client's TLS settings. By
default, rest-client will verify certificates using the system's CA store on
all platforms. (This is intended to be similar to how browsers behave.) You can
specify an :ssl_ca_file, :ssl_ca_path, or :ssl_cert_store to customize the
certificate authorities accepted.

### SSL Client Certificates

  :ssl_client_cert  =>"cert.pem")),
  :ssl_client_key   =>"key.pem"), "passphrase, if any"),
  :ssl_ca_file      =>  "ca_certificate.pem",
  :verify_ssl       =>  OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_PEER
Self-signed certificates can be generated with the openssl command-line tool.

## Hook

RestClient.add_before_execution_proc add a Proc to be called before each execution.
It's handy if you need direct access to the HTTP request.


# Add oauth support using the oauth gem
require 'oauth'
access_token = ...

RestClient.add_before_execution_proc do |req, params|
  access_token.sign! req

RestClient.get ''

## More

Need caching, more advanced logging or any ability provided by Rack middleware?

Have a look at rest-client-components:

## Credits
| | |
| **REST Client Team**    | Andy Brody                                              |
| **Creator**             | Adam Wiggins                                            |
| **Maintainers Emeriti** | Lawrence Leonard Gilbert, Matthew Manning, Julien Kirch |
| **Major contributions** | Blake Mizerany, Julien Kirch                            |

A great many generous folks have contributed features and patches.
See AUTHORS for the full list.

## Legal

Released under the MIT License:

Photo of the International Space Station was produced by NASA and is in the
public domain.

Code for reading Windows root certificate store derived from work by Puppet;
used under terms of the Apache License, Version 2.0.